Cunaxa


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

Cunaxa

(kyo͞onăk`sə), ancient town of Babylonia, near the Euphrates River, NE of Ctesiphon. It was the scene of a battle (401 B.C.) between Cyrus the YoungerCyrus the Younger,
d. 401 B.C., Persian prince, younger son of Darius II and Parysatis. He was his mother's favorite, and she managed to get several satrapies in Asia Minor for him when he was very young.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and Artaxerxes IIArtaxerxes II,
d. 358 B.C., king of ancient Persia (404–358 B.C.), son and successor of Darius II. He is sometimes called in Greek Artaxerxes Mnemon [the thoughtful]. Early in his reign Cyrus the Younger attempted to assassinate him and seize the throne.
..... Click the link for more information.
, described by XenophonXenophon
, c.430 B.C.–c.355 B.C., Greek historian, b. Athens. He was one of the well-to-do young disciples of Socrates before leaving Athens to join the Greek force (the Ten Thousand) that was in the service of Cyrus the Younger of Persia.
..... Click the link for more information.
 in the Anabasis. ClearchusClearchus
, d. 401 B.C., Spartan officer, celebrated as the leader of the Ten Thousand. Sent in 410 to govern Byzantium, he made himself unpopular by his harsh discipline, and Alcibiades took the city in 408 B.C.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Spartan mercenary leader under Cyrus, chose to attack the Persian left wing (under Tissaphernes), which he completely routed and pursued. When he and his Ten Thousand returned, they found that Cyrus had fought hard in the center, had broken Artaxerxes' bodyguard, but in the moment of victory had been killed. Cyrus' army, demoralized, had broken up, and the Persians had taken the field. The retreat of the Ten Thousand northward is the most famous feature of the campaign.

Cunaxa

the site near the lower Euphrates where Artaxerxes II defeated Cyrus the Younger in 401 bc
References in periodicals archive ?
ueckermanni -- -- Bdella longicornis -- -- Cyta spuria -- -- Cunaxidae Cunaxa capreolus -- -- Lupaeus minutus -- -- Eupodidae Protereunetes sp.
There is, of course, the simple fact that despite their victory the lovers and the other Greeks are still trapped behind enemy lines in Persian territory because of the death of the leader of the rebellion, which could hardly fail to recall the situation of the Ten Thousand after Cunaxa. But the combination of recapitulation and signaling of a happy outcome emphasizes in the strongest terms the ultimate divergence between the two stories, a point to which I will return below.
By permanency and relative abundance, the dominant species were: Cunaxa potchensis, Coleoscirus simplex, Armascirus harrisoni, Cunaxoides sp.
The Ten Thousand crossed the awesome Euphrates at Thapsacus (probably modern Ar Raqqah) and followed the river south to Cunaxa. My journey was undertaken in the autumn of 2005: it was impossible for me to get to Iraq, where about a quarter of Xenophon's travels took place, so I turned north and picked up his route again where Iraq, Syria and Turkey meet.
Although he employed the optimistic title Anabasis (the first-leg "march up" into the interior of Iraq), in fact, Xenophon's account really gets going only after the Greeks were dry-gulched at Cunaxa. So the core of the work is really a "Katabasis" detailing the heroic slog through the cold and snows of upper Iraq, Kurdistan, and Armenia to the safety of the Black Sea, ending with a "Parabasis" along the southern coast of the sea back toward Byzantium and Europe.
After the Battle of Cunaxa where Cyrus was killed, the Greek army was demoralized and discouraged as they saw no way of marching 1,000 miles back to Greece with 10,000 soldiers through unfriendly country, not to mention that they currently faced a numerically superior army.
Just before the battle of Cunaxa, Cyrus goes out in front of his army to survey the situation, and Xenophon rides out to ask whether he has any orders to convey (1.8.14-7).
36-8) analyses the battle of Cunaxa in order to establish a likely size for Persian armies.
Martin Fetherston-Godley has successfully appealed to the Jockey Club against the demotion of first past the post Xenophon of Cunaxa on May 19 at Newbury.
Zygo (100-30) was promoted to first after losing out in a photo to Xenophon of Cunaxa (with a name like that it deserved to be disqualified).
One new species Cunaxa nankanaensis was recorded from Rice husk from a rice mill located in Nankana District.
He gave an article to the New College seminar, which is not included here, but nine of the photographs printed are his, including one of the probable sites of the decisive Battle of Cunaxa not far from Nineveh.