The species dissolved in Fe[Cl.sub.3] activated with [H.sub.2]O are [Fe.sup.2+] [Cl.sup.-.sub.2], [Fe.sup.+] [(OH).sup.-], and [H.sup.+][Cl.sup.-] which indicate that corrosion in Cu foils occur because initially [Cu.sup.+] ion in the presence of [H.sup.+] ion produces cupric chloride
(CuCl), and later cuprous chloride (Cu[Cl.sub.2]) is fully formed by the reaction of CuCl with [Cu.sup.2+] ion [1, 13, 14].
Copper Oxychloride, which is also known as basic cupric chloride
, having chemical formula CuCl23Cu(OH)2 is found in natural minerals and also produced synthetically.
A solution of 7 (300 mg, 0.61 mmol), 1-hexyne (90 [micro]L, 0.78 mmol), N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (150 mg, 0.72 mmol), and cupric chloride
anhydrous (100 mg, 0.72 mmol) in 8mL of methanol/dimethyl sulfoxide (2:6) was stirring for 72 h at room temperature.
About 20 mL solution of cupric chloride
dihydrate (0.0025 mole) in acetone was prepared.
Ionic liquids were dried at 70 [degrees]C, 12 h in vacuum prior to the electrochemical test; anhydrous cuprous chloride and cupric chloride
were used without further processing.
The most commonly used etchants by flexible circuit manufacturers are cupric chloride
, ferric chloride, and to a lesser extent some ammoniacal etchants.
However, materials such as stainless steels, beryllium copper, copper-cladded materials, bi- and tri-metals, and nickel and brass alloys can be etched readily by using aqueous solutions with ferric chloride or cupric chloride
Etchants Ferric chloride 365-610 g [l.sup.-1] + 5% HCl 2-10 min at 50[degrees]C Ammonium persulphate 200-250 g [l.sup.-1] + 18 ml [l.sup.-1] sulphuric acid at 60[degrees]C Cupric chloride
200 g [l.sup.-1] + 150 g [l.sup.-1] HCl 10-20 min at 45[degrees]C Chromic/sulphuric 200-500 g [l.sup.-1] Cr[O.sub.3] + 200 g [l.sup.-1] [H.sub.2][SO.sub.4] Sulphuric/peroxide 200-500 g [l.sup.-1] [H.sub.2][SO.sub.4] + 10-30 ml [l.sup.-1] [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] Choice of etchant depends upon other factors:
This innovative process utilizes a leaching medium of cupric chloride
and halogen complexes (eg.
We now report that the ocean pout has a single hemoglobin with six sulfhydryl groups per tetramer and polymerizes, in vitro, after oxidation with potassium ferricyanide ([K.sub.3]Fe[(CN).sub.6]) or cupric chloride
carried out comparative analysis of the copper etching process with ferric chloride and cupric chloride