and peel of oak were harvested from natural habitats in Dinarvand village in Lorestan provenance from Iran.
This apparent indiscrimination in terms of location may well suggest that the act of producing a cupule
was more important than where they were displayed or consumed in the landscape.
In Ficinia, a cupule
grows out from the hypogynous stalk, which is persistent on the fruit.
removal is labor intensive and risks the integrity of the caryopsis, it is necessary to find methods of increasing germination of intact seed.
Female flowers and cupules
of Balanopaceae, an enigmatic rosid family.
3] on germination of seeds with their cupule
intact was slight, with germination percentage increasing 5 to 8% when compared with untreated seed.
are, in the main, confined to the torso region and exhibit a similar degree of patination to that of the rest of the motif.
The study consisted of (i) a cupule
removal experiment with four seed lots combined with two cupule
removed) and two fungicide treatments (untreated and treated) using approximately 8-mo-old seed produced in 1995, (ii) a scarification experiment with three seed lots combined with three seed conditions (cupule
removed and caryopsis scarified) using approximately 7-mo-old seed produced in 1996, and (iii) a scarification experiment of four seed lots combined with three seed conditions (cupule
removed and caryopsis scarified) using approximately 18-mo-old seed produced in 1995.
The indurate first glume and hard bony rachis internode form a cupule
or fruit case that surrounds the pistillate spikelet.
The relatively small (10-15 mm diameter), ovoid-triangular nuts are produced in a four-valved, leathery cupule
that is usually covered with short, recurved appendages.
New investigations of prehistoric sites in Myanmar by a joint Australia--Myanmar team have revealed important rock markings, including the first major cupule
site from mainland Southeast Asia.
Inception of the cupule
of Quercus macrocarpa and Fagus grandifolia.