and peel of oak were harvested from natural habitats in Dinarvand village in Lorestan provenance from Iran.
Although we do not know how cupule
marks were produced, their uniformity in shape and size on Uneapa may suggest that the techniques used were relatively constant.
In Ficinia, a cupule
grows out from the hypogynous stalk, which is persistent on the fruit.
removal is labor intensive and risks the integrity of the caryopsis, it is necessary to find methods of increasing germination of intact seed.
Female flowers and cupules
of Balanopaceae, an enigmatic rosid family.
(2002) tested the roles of the cupule
and pericarp on seed dormancy of eastern gamagrass.
(1918): "Les Sculptures sur Rochers du Petit Pre et du Champ du Chiron, pres Saint-Mesmin-le-Vieux (Vendee) [Pied; Cupule
; Fauteuil; Bassin; Rigoles]", Bulletin de la Societe prehistorique francaise, 15 (3), pp.
The mouth of each of the three figures is depicted by a single line with a pair of pecked cupule
The study consisted of (i) a cupule
removal experiment with four seed lots combined with two cupule
removed) and two fungicide treatments (untreated and treated) using approximately 8-mo-old seed produced in 1995, (ii) a scarification experiment with three seed lots combined with three seed conditions (cupule
removed and caryopsis scarified) using approximately 7-mo-old seed produced in 1996, and (iii) a scarification experiment of four seed lots combined with three seed conditions (cupule
removed and caryopsis scarified) using approximately 18-mo-old seed produced in 1995.
(d)Podostemoideae posses an additional envelope, homologous to prophylls or leaves (spathella), whereas Tristichoideac have a cuplike cover (Cupule
) (Rutishauser, 1997.) (e)Haber (1959, 1961, 1966) interprets the scales as a petal whorl, because their vasculature is connected with the sepal lateral bundles, their tetramerous plan, and the alternisepalous position.
The indurate first glume and hard bony rachis internode form a cupule
or fruit case that surrounds the pistillate spikelet.
The relatively small (10-15 mm diameter), ovoid-triangular nuts are produced in a four-valved, leathery cupule
that is usually covered with short, recurved appendages.