Two additional examples of outliers are Dahalo, with respect to the other Cushitic
languages, and Kwadi, with respect to the Khoe-Kwadi group.
As already mentioned in section 4, the use of gender shifts to encode evaluative meanings was found among the Berber, Cushitic
and Khoe languages as well as in the isolates Hadza and Sandawe.
Somalis are Cushitic
nomads spread over four countries: they form the dominant ethnic group within Somalia (between six and seven million people); they also represent two-thirds of the Djibouti population (500,000 people) and constitute important minorities in Ethiopia (more than a million individuals in the Hand and Ogaden regions) and In Kenya [300,000 people in the northeast region; Francois Piguet, "Des nomades entre les villes et le sable" (Paris: Karthala, 1998)].
Languages: English (official), Swahili (national), over 40 other languages from the Bantu, Nilotic, and Cushitic
Part II, "Cushitic
," offers eight papers, most on individual languages, although a couple are comparative.
in Ethiopia, offers an extended study of ethnobotany in this work, where plant names and uses are compiled for the Awi, Gumuz, and Shinasha people of Ethiopia, who speak, respectively, languages in the Cushitic
, Nilo-Saharan, and Omotic families.
Related are Eurasiatic *mVlV, Afroasiatic *mVl- with the meaning 'to think' in the Cushitic
and Semitic languages, and Amerind *mali for 'to talk'.
They neglected Yaaku, a tongue from a language group called Cushitic
, in favor of the Maasai's language Maa, which is radically different with roots in another group called Nilotic.
One the other hand, Somali language is a member of the Cushitic
languages spoken mostly in Somalia and nearby Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Kenya.
Rendille (Afro-Asiatic; Cushitic
): N-dem num A Gabra (Afro-Asiatic; Cushitic
): N num A dem Sampur (Nilo-Saharan; Eastern Nilotic): dem N num A Camus (Nilo-Saharan: Eastern Nilotic): dem N num A Turkana (Nilo-Saharan: Eastern Nilotic): N dem num A Luo (Nilo-Saharan: Western Nilotic): N num A dem Logoli (Niger-Congo; Central Bantu): N num A dem
The long process of Bantu expansion, a series of long-distance migrations over millennia, involved both iron technology and mixed agriculture, eventually assimilating Cushitic
and Sudanic linguistic groups.
Except for the most recent immigrants, it is safe to say that all tribes in Kenya contain a mixture of Bantu, Kalenjin, Eastern Nilotic and Eastern Cushitic
elements, with a small amount of Southern Cushitic
and Hadzan thrown in.