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see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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the cordlike association of nerve tissues that links the brain and nerve ganglia by innervation to the other organs and tissues of the body.

A nerve primarily consists of nerve fibers. In vertebrates many nerves converge to form a bundle that is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath, the perineurium; the thin interstitial layers of connective tissue that separate the individual fibers deep within the bundle constitute the endoneurium. Finally, the entire nerve trunk, comprising several bundles, is covered by an additional sheath, the epineurium.

Nerves can be sensory (also called afferent or centripetal) or motor (also called efferent or centrifugal). Some nerves, for example, those innervating the skeletal muscles, mainly include myelinated, or medullated, fibers; others, for example, the sympathetic nerves, largely consist of unmyelinated, or unmedullated, fibers.

In reptiles, birds, mammals, and man 12 pairs of cranial nerves branch from the brain: the olfactory (cranial nerve I), the optic (cranial nerve II), the oculomotor (cranial nerve III), the trochlear (cranial nerve IV), the trigeminal (cranial nerve V), the abducent (cranial nerve VI), the facial (cranial nerve VII), the acoustic (cranial nerve VIII), the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX), the vagus (cranial nerve X), the accessory (cranial nerve XI), and the hypoglossal (cranial nerve XII). Only the first ten pairs are present in fish and amphibians.

In man there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: eight cervical, 12 thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and one coccygeal. Each pair innervates the effectors and receptors of a certain part of the body. The spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord into two roots—the posterior, or sensory, and the anterior, or motor. Both roots then combine to form a common trunk that consists of both sensory and motor fibers.

Several adjacent nerves can be combined into nerve plexuses, where an exchange of fibers between different nerves can take place. Three large plexuses are distinguished: the cervical, the brachial, and the lumbosacral. Each nerve plexus is the origin of several pairs of nerves; for example, the sacral portion of the lumbosacral plexus gives rise to the sciatic nerves.

Nerves that originate in the ganglia, trunks, and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system constitute a specific group. The optic nerve is remarkable for its large number of fibers; there are more than 1 million in the human optic nerve. Usually, however, there are 103 -104 fibers in a nerve. In invertebrates certain nerves are known to consist of only a few fibers. The peripheral nervous system in animals and man consists of aggregations of nerves.



A bundle of nerve fibers or processes held together by connective tissue.


Any one of the ribs of a groined vault, but esp. a rib which forms one of the sides of a compartment of the groining.


1. any of the cordlike bundles of fibres that conduct sensory or motor impulses between the brain or spinal cord and another part of the body
2. a large vein in a leaf
3. any of the veins of an insect's wing
References in periodicals archive ?
It may also help to explain the limited therapeutic value of the use of topical applications in NP (55) in that the cutaneous nerves may only play a partial role.
In all extremities with mild CTS, the sensory action potential of the median palmar cutaneous nerve was obtained.
There are few reports of the medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm joining the ulnar nerve within a common fascial sheath.
Since cannabinoid receptors are expressed on cutaneous nerve fibers, topical cannabinoid agonists directly inhibit the transmission of pruritus and therefore represent a promising new therapeutic modality," Dr.
Evidence of increased cutaneous nerve regeneration was seen in skin biopsies from the legs of 4 subjects compared to baseline.
Trophic and vasomotor changes: Anhydrosis in 21 cases, thickened ulnar nerve found in 31 cases unilateral, 5 cases bilateral ulnar thickening, thickened and great auricular nerve in 6 cases, thickened radial cutaneous nerve in 4 cases, thickened medial cutaneous nerve of forearm in 1 case, thickened cutaneous nerve of upper arm on right side, thickened common peroneal nerve in 17 cases.
These fasciocutaneous perforators also form intercommunications with the axial pattern arteries that accompany the medial sural cutaneous nerve.
Subsequent work demonstrated that a more proximal blockade, approximately midway between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the patella, may block other nerves known to traverse the adductor (Hunter's) canal in addition to the saphenous nerve, including the posterior branch of the obturator nerve, medial femoral cutaneous nerve, anterior branch of obturator nerve, and the nerve to vastus medialis muscle.
Remission of psoriasis associated with cutaneous nerve section.
The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve is a sensory nerve that branches out directly from the medial cord of the brachial plexus and innervates the skin on medial side of the forearm.
Aizawa reported that the medial cutaneous nerve branches and vastus medialis, vastus inter-medius, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris nerves were arranged medially to laterally, respectively [24].
What's more, coupled with stiletto heels, the pressure these jeans put on the femoral cutaneous nerve that runs through the thigh can cause tingling and burning through the leg, reports MSNBC.

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