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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



any one of numerous organic compounds containing two heterocyclic radicals connected by a chain consisting of an odd number of methine groups:

where Y and Y’ are O, S, Se, CR2, or some other element or radical, R and R’ are H or van alkyl, X is Cl, Br, I, or some other anion, and n = 0–5.

The general name for this class of compounds is derived from the first compound of the class, bright blue cyanin, or cyanine blue (from the Greek kyanos, “blue”). Depending on the number of methine groups in the chain, a distinction is made between simple cyanines (monomethines), in which n = 0, carbocyanines (trimethines), in which n = 1, dicarbocyanines (pentamethines), in which n = 2, and so forth. The basic method for the synthesis of cyanines involves the condensation of quaternary salts of heterocyclic compounds. Cyanines are polymethine dyes.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Then, the cells exposed to hyperbaric pressure were treated with the different concentrations of cyanin chloride, and the cells were cultured for an additional 3 days: Group A (control group): 0 mmHg additional pressure without cyanin chloride treatment; Group B (hyperbaric group): 60 mmHg additional pressure; Group C: 60 mmHg additional pressure and 10 [micro]mol/L cyanin chloride; Group D: 60 mmHg additional pressure and 30 [micro]mol/L cyanin chloride; and Group E: 60 mmHg additional pressure and 50 [micro]mol/L cyanin chloride.
Cell morphology did not change significantly after exposure to either hyperbaric pressure (Figure 1(b)) or cyanin chloride (Figures 1(c)-1(e)).
The relative SR was significantly decreased in Group B (+60 mmHg additional pressure) compared to Group A (atmospheric pressure) (P < 0.01; Figure 2), but treatment with cyanin chloride increased survival in Groups C, D, and E compared to Group B, and the effect was dose-dependent (P < 0.01; Figure 2).
We investigated the effect of cyanin chloride on GLAST mRNA and protein expression in cultured retinal Muller cells under hyperbaric pressure.
Our results confirm our hypothesis that cyanin chloride, a type of anthocyanin, can improve the GLAST level in hyperbaric pressure-cultured rat retinal Muller cells.
In our study, 30 [micro]mol/L and 50 [micro]mol/L cyanin chloride increased GLAST protein levels in Muller cells exposed to hyperbaric pressure.
In conclusion, we have demonstrated that cyanin chloride prevents hyperbaric pressure-induced decreases in survival of cultured Muller cells, and this effect is mirrored by the increased GLAST level.
The results support our hypothesis and demonstrate that cyanin chloride can protect rat retinal Muller cells from hyperbaric pressure-induced decreases in the GLAST level.
Muller cells were cultured to 80-90% confluence and exposed to hyperbaric or atmospheric pressure for two hours and then to varying concentrations of cyanin chloride (or vehicle) for three days before images were captured.
In podocysts less than 4 months old subjected to the acid solochrome cyanin method, most of the granules filling the cytoplasm of the cyst cells are stained red, indicating proteins (Fig.
Histochemical examination by means of the acid solochrome cyanin method on 5-year old podocysts demonstrated that the cell mass had been stained red, indicating proteins, as extensively as in the podocysts less than 4 months old (Figs.