The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a method of studying human movements by successively photographing (up to hundreds of times a minute) marks or electric bulbs attached to moving parts of the body.

The French scientist E. J. Marey in the 1880’s was the first to suggest photographing the phases of movement. Cyclography was modified and improved by N. A. Bernshtein in the 1920’s. Bernshtein proposed kymocyclography, that is, photographing on a moving film. The analysis of cyclograms (cyclogrammetry) for several movements yielded data on the path of individual points of the body and on the velocity and acceleration of moving parts of the body. The information made it possible to compute the magnitudes of the forces responsible for a given movement. It also served as the foundation of modern conceptions of the principles of the control of bodily movements, used to study motor disorders and the movements made by athletes. Motion-picture photography of movements and the subsequent analysis of frames, which resemble cyclograms, is similar to cyclography.


Bernshtein, N. A. Ocherki po fiziologii dvizhenii i fiziologii aktivnosti. Moscow, 1966.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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