A detector deep in a mine in northern Minnesota has shown evidence for highly energetic particles coming straight to us from Cyg X-3 (SN: 4/11/87, p228).
It happens that this model of neutrinos gives them a much larger magnetic moment than the standard one, so it is plausible that on the way from Cyg X-3 some of them are flipped over by the galactic magnetic field.
Negative results from other detectors presented at this meeting seemed to lead many physicists to dismiss the idea, but Marvin Marshak of the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis, one of the leaders of the Soudan group, not only insisted on the accuracy of the Cyg X-3 observations but also presented a claim for similar radiation from four other objects of the same class as Cyg X-3.
Cyg X-3 is a binary star that is a strong emitter of X-rays.
invisible, highly energetic particles coming from the direction of Cyg X-3. The Soudan detector and the others under discussion--all intended to look for radioactive decay of the proton--are mostly calorimeters, large arrays consisting of iron plates separated by narrow spaces filled with gas.
That is what the Soudan group says happened with Cyg X-3 and why the scientists were able to trace the paths of the cygnets back to Cyg X-3.
Last autumn scientists running a detector called NUSEX, located in a tunnel under Mont Blanc on the French-Swiss border, reported an apparent confirmation of the original Cyg X-3 detection.
Long known as a strong emitter of X-rays, Cyg X-3 also seems to be emitting an exotic form of radiation that is difficult to explain and may involve some hitherto unexpected and unknown physics.
The exotic radiation was not found by equipment actively looking at Cyg X-3. It turned up in experiments set up to look for radioactive decay of the proton.
None of the proton decay experiments has yet seen proton decay, but the strange radiation from Cyg X-3 has appeared in two of them.
Muons have too short a lifetime to have come themselves from Cyg X-3 but rather something that decays into muons near the earth has come from there.
The nuggets could be made in processes associated with a quark star, a star made up of a lot of quarks stuck together -- if such a thing happens to be at the heart of Cyg X-3. The quark nuggets would be produced in a charged form and accelrated by electromagnetic fields near the quark star and then neutralized on the way.