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(Greek Kynos kephalai, literally “dogs’ heads”), a range of hills in Thessaly (Greece), northwest of Thebes. A battle between the Roman army of the consul T. Quinctius Flamininus and the forces of the Macedonian king Philip V took place near Cynoscephalae in 197 B.C. during the Second Macedonian War (200–197 B.C.). There were 26,000 men on each side. The Roman army, with its maniple formation, was victorious over the heavy phalanx of the Macedonians. The victory at Cynoscephalae marked the end of Macedonian rule in Greece, and after that most of Greece became dependent on Rome.