croaker

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croaker

croaker, member of the abundant and varied family Sciaenidae, carnivorous, spiny-finned fishes including the weakfishes, the drums, and the kingcroakers (or kingfish). The croaker has a compressed, elongated body similar to that of the bass. The name describes the croaking or grunting sounds produced by members of most species, chiefly during the breeding season. Croakers are found in sandy shallows of all temperate and warm seas. They range in weight from the 1-lb (0.5-kg) Atlantic croaker to the 150-lb (68-kg) common drum. The Atlantic croaker, common from Cape Cod to Texas, is an important food fish. The spot-fin croaker is found in the Pacific. The drums, the largest and noisiest croakers, include the red drum, or channel bass, of which over 2 million lb (900,000 kg) are taken per year off Florida; the common, or black, drum, found from New England to the Rio Grande; and the freshwater drum, found in central North America. The kingcroakers or kingfishes, also known as whitings, include the Northern kingfish, kingcroaker, or king whiting; the Southern kingcroaker, kingfish, or king whiting, also known as the sea mink; the gulf kingcroaker or kingfish, also known as the surf whiting; and the corbina of the Pacific. All average 3 lb (1.4 kg) in weight and 2 ft (60 cm) in length. Croakers are bottom feeders; those mentioned above have sensitive chin barbels to aid in locating their prey. The weakfishes, named for their easily torn flesh, lack barbels; they are also called sea trout. The common weakfish, or squeteague, abundant along the Atlantic coast, grows to 12 lb (5.5 kg) in weight and 3 ft (90 cm) in length. The more southerly spotted weakfish is similar. The white sea bass, weighing up to 60 lb (27 kg), is a Pacific croaker found as far north as Puget Sound. The spot, a small croaker, is commercially important in Virginia and the Carolinas, where the annual catch is estimated at 10 million lb (4.5 million kg) or more. Croakers are classified in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Actinopterygii, order Perciformes, family Sciaenidae.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Otolithus thalassinus = Cynoscion regalis (Bloch 8z Schneider): Weakfish; p.
Hypsoblennius hentz Menticirrhus americanus Symphurus plagiusa Litopenaeus setiferus Dasyatis sabina Orthopristis chrysoptera Trinectes maculates Cynoscion regalis Chloroscombrus chrysours Sciaenops ocellatus Scomberomorus maculates Trachinotusfalcatus Lutjanus griseus Opisthonema oglinum Abudefduf saxatilis Larimus fasciatus Microgobius thalassinus Ctenogobius boleosoma Sphyraena guachancho Eucinostomus gula Diapterus auratus Summer Species Jul Aug Sept Anchoa mitchilli 43 308 319 Bairdiella chrysoura 5 3 -- Cyprinodon variegatus 1 2 variegatus Poecilia latipinna Callinectes sapidus 79 43 38 Fundulus heteroclitus 46 9 19 Palaemonetes spp.
In order to compare differences in diet between habitat types along the transect and maintain a statistically viable sample size for each species, three dominant sciaenids captured during 2006 were selected; Bairdiella chrysoura, Cynoscion regalis, and Micropogonias undulatus (Vasslides 2007).
Fish density in the shore zone (Table 1) was dominated by Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia, 51%), bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli, 32%), weakfish (Cynoscion regalis, 4%), and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix, 2%).
In this river system, 3 of the dominant pelagic predators are bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and weakfish (Cynoscion regalis).
Finally, increased flow of seawater into Little Bay and the Sedge Islands has enabled large numbers of weakfish (Cynoscion regalis), bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and other piscivorous fish to enter the area, which has stimulated considerable recreational fishing activity, leading to additional habitat loss and alteration due to heavy boat traffic.
Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis Bloch and Schneider: Sciaenidae) occur along the U.S.
Abstract--From 2008 through 2010, the diets of 3 sciaenid species, the weakfish (Cynoscion regalis), southern kingfish (Menticirrhus americanus), and Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), were examined.
This lack of key information applies to the economically and ecologically important sciaenid weakfish (Cynoscion regalis), which is seasonally distributed in estuaries and coastal habitats along the Middle Atlantic Bight, where it feeds and spawns.
From May to October in 2006 and 2007, we measured residencies of ultrasonically tagged age-1+ Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis; n=46), age-0 and age-1+ Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix; n=45 and 35) and age-1+ Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis; n=41) in a small estuarine tributary in New Jersey with 32 ultrasonic receivers to monitor movements and sensors to measure habitat resources.
Group E comprises fishes from all 3 regions: Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) from Atlantic and GOM populations, as well as Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis), Spotfin Croaker (Roncador stearnsii), and Yellowfin Croaker (Umbrina roncador).
Abundance and stomach contents of seasonally co-occurring piscivores were examined to determine overlap in resource use for Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus; 206-670 mm total length [TL]), Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis; 80-565 mm TL), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix; 55-732 mm fork length [FL]), and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis; 422-920 mm FL).