A scanning electron microscopic survey of the cuticle in Cyphophthalmi
(Arachnida, Opiliones) with the description of novel sensory and glandular structures.
A morphometrics-based phylogeny of the temperate Gondwanan mite harvestmen (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi
The Order Opiliones Sundevall, comprises four suborders (Cyphophthalmi
Simon, Eupnoi Hansen & Sorensen, Dyspnoi Hansen & Sorensen, and Laniatores Thorell) with more than 6.000 taxonomically described species (Shultz & Regier, 2001; Giribet etal., 2002; Hallan, 2009).
Hansen (1921) estudia los Cyphophthalmi
y Eupnoi y describe cuatro especies, Parogovia sironoides, Ogovea nasuta, Dacnopilio insularis y Megistobunus longipes (Cuadro 1).
Explosive evolution of an ancient group of Cyphophthalmi
(Arachnida: Opiliones) in the Balkan Peninsula.
Thus far, no Cyphophthalmi
or Laniatores have been found in the country (or the nearby region of central Asia).
Fertilization is internal and the transfer of sperm may occur indirectly through spermatophores in representatives of the suborder Cyphophthalmi
, or directly by means of a long and fully intromittent male genitalia in the suborders Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, and Laniatores (Machado & Macias-Ordonez 2007).
Although the defensive chemistry of Cyphophthalmi
, Eupnoi and Laniatores has been studied for some species, that of many important higher taxa (i.e., Dyspnoi) remains completely uninvestigated.
A recent phylogenetic study of Pettalidae Shear, 1980 labeled this family of Cyphophthalmi
(Arachnida, Opiliones) a "new model Gondwanan taxon," due to its remarkable distribution on nearly all landmasses of temperate Gondwanan origin (Boyer & Giribet 2007).
Recently, an ultrastructural study on exocrine glands of Cyphophthalmus duricorius (Cyphophthalmi
) was published (Gutjahr et al.
A new genus of cyphophthalmid from the Iberian Peninsula with a phylogenetic analysis of the Sironidae (Arachnida : Opiliones : Cyphophthalmi
) and a SEM database of external morphology.
However, the members of the suborder Cyphophthalmi
(mite harvestmen) were thought to be eyeless with the remarkable exception of most Stylocellidae, possessing a pair of laterally positioned eyes in front of the ozophores bearing the opening of the defense glands (Juberthie 1964; Martens 1978; Shear 1993a,b; Giribet & Boyer 2002; Giribet et al.