The monophyly of the Cypriniformes + Characiformes + Gymnotiformes + Siluriformes, of the Characiformes + Gymnotiformes + Siluriformes and of the Gymnotiformes + Siluriformes is well supported.
Fink & Fink (1981, 1996) did not mention the presence of this feature in cypriniforms, but the Danio and Barbus specimens examined by us do exhibit a highly modified, ovoid anterolateral face of the 'transverse process' of the fourth free vertebra that is similar to that found in many gymnotiforms and siluriforms.
Phylogenetic relationships of the Cypriniformes tested by mtDNA 12S rRNA sequence variations.
Sequence variations in the mitochondrial DNA control region and their implications for the phylogeny of the Cypriniformes. Can.
A comparative study of the feeding mechanisms of some African Cyprinidae (Pisces, Cypriniformes).
2), and is supported by a single synapomorphy: anteroventral margin of prevomer situates well posteriorly to anteroventral margin of mesethmoid (32: 0 [right arrow] 1, only occurring independently in a few taxa outside this clade C38 and only reverted, inside of it, in cypriniforms
; the condition of [dagger] Santanichthys diasii and of [dagger] Clupavus maroccanus is not clear).