Cyrenaica


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Related to Cyrenaica: Cyrene, Tripolitania

Cyrenaica

(sĭrənā`ĭkə, sīrə–), historic region, E Libya, bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. BenghaziBenghazi
or Bengasi
, city (1985 est. pop. 490,500), capital of Benghazi municipality, NE Libya, the main city of Cyrenaica and a port on the Mediterranean Sea. It is primarily an administrative and commercial center.
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, Al Marj, Darnah, and TobrukTobruk
, Arab. Tubruq, city (1984 pop. 75,282), NE Libya, a port on the Mediterranean Sea. It was a fiercely contested objective in World War II (see North Africa, campaigns in). Tobruk was first taken by the British on Jan. 22, 1941.
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 are the chief cities. The Greeks colonized N Cyrenaica in the 7th cent. B.C., founding numerous settlements. In the mid-1st cent. B.C., Cyrenaica became a Roman province. In A.D. 115–16 there was a large-scale but unsuccessful revolt of Jewish settlers. When Rome was divided (4th cent.) into the Eastern and Western empires, Cyrenaica came under the Byzantines, who, however, exercised little control over the region. In 642 Arab armies conquered Cyrenaica and many Arabs settled in the region from the 9th to 11th cent. The Ottoman Turks captured the area in the mid-16th cent. The SanusiSanusi
or Senussi
, Arabic Sanusiyya, a political-religious organization in Libya and Sudan founded in Mecca in 1837 by Muhammad bin Ali al-Sanusi (1791–1859), known as the Grand Sanusi.
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 Muslim brotherhood was founded (1843) in Cyrenaica and gained many adherents there. For the history of Cyrenaica after the Ottoman conquest, see LibyaLibya
, republic (2015 est. pop. 6,235,000), 679,358 sq mi (1,759,540 sq km), N Africa. It borders on Algeria in the west, on Tunisia in the northwest, on the Mediterranean Sea in the north, on Egypt in the east, on Sudan in the southeast, and on Chad and Niger in the south.
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.

Cyrenaica

 

a historic region in Libya. In the seventh century B.C., Greek cities were founded along the coast of Cyrenaica, the largest being Cyrene. From the sixth to the fourth century B.C. the region was part of the Achaemenid Empire. It was later incorporated into the empire of Alexander the Great. After Alexander’s death, Cyrenaica was under the rule of the Ptolemies. In the first century B.C., it became a Roman province; it subsequently was under Byzantine rule. In A.D. 640–650, Cyrenaica was conquered by the Arabs, and in the 16th century it fell to the Turks.

After the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12, the Italians occupied part of Cyrenaica; they annexed the remainder of the territory in 1928. The region, together with Tripolitania and Fezzan, later formed the Italian colony of Libya. At the end of World War II (1939–45), Cyrenaica was occupied by British forces, who established a large military base there; the base was closed after the revolutionary coup in Libya in 1969. From 1951 (December) to 1963, Cyrenaica was one of the three provinces of Libya. With the introduction of new administrative divisions, the region ceased to exist as an independent unit and was divided into the muhafazat (governorships) of Benghazi, Darnah, and Al Jabal al Akhdar.

References in periodicals archive ?
The strongman of Cyrenaica is probably still the key obstacle to unity in the country.
Although the Egyptians indicated they would regard Haftar as the new institution's head, their forum was opened to "all parties excluding terrorist organizations," signifying their determination to see a unified set of armed forces covering all of Libya, not just Cyrenaica. They started by including GNA-aligned military figures known for their practicality, such as Gen.
*** Cyrenaica (Benghazi-Barce) Was Conquered By Arab Muslims During The Reign Of Caliph Umar In 643/44 AD,AaAeAeA And Became Known AsAaAeAeA Barce Was Annexed To Egypt, Yet Still Under The Same Name, 1st Under The FatimidAaAeAeA Caliphs And Later Under The Ayyubid And MamlukAaAeAeA Sultan
Falconi explained further: "The latter [Haftar], instead, is more concerned with securing as many areas of the country as possible under his control, starting with Cyrenaica and extending his power to the rich Sirte District."
Of course, in 1951, King Idriss came to power with a UK and US mandate to unite what were three distinct areas, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan after the wreckage of fascism in Europe.
"There is an emphasis that Benghazi be a capital just like Tripoli by virtue of all of its sacrifices and the federal system option, only following a public referendum in Cyrenaica," he added.
A spokesman for Jathran's self-declared Cyrenaica region had on July 1 night announced a deal to hand over the two ports as a goodwill gesture.
Which North African country was divided after the Second World War into Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica? 8.
These armed groups have demanded the establishment of the federal system in the province of Berga (Cyrenaica) and the region's share of oil incomes.
They are seeking a greater share of the country's oil revenues, as well as autonomy for the historic eastern region of Cyrenaica.
"We have sent land forces to defend Cyrenaica to the west of Sirte ...
They will be divided equally between Libya's three regions: Tripolitania in the west, Cyrenaica in the east, and Fezzan in the south.