Cyril, Saint

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Cyril, Saint

(St. Cyril of Jerusalem)
Cyril, Saint (Saint Cyril of Jerusalem) (sĭrˈəl), c. 315–386, bishop of Jerusalem (c. 350–386), Doctor of the Church. Ordained by his predecessor as bishop, St. Maximus, he was deposed in 357 by the Arian bishop Acacius of Caesarea (see Arianism) on charges of stealing church property, although the real reason was probably that he was teaching Nicene (see Nicaea, First Council of) and not Arian doctrine. The Council of Seleucia (359) deposed Acacius, and Cyril was returned to his see. Driven out again (360) by Emperor Constantius, he returned after Pope Julian ascended in 361, then was banished with other bishops in 367 by Emperor Valens, an Arian, and finally restored after the accession of Emperor Gratian (378). Cyril ultimately accepted the term homoousios [consubstantial, of the same substance] to define the Son's relationship to the Father; the term was affirmed by the First Council of Constantinople (381), which he attended. He probably instituted many of the liturgical forms for Holy Week, and he is known for Catechetical Lectures and Mystagogic Catecheses on the principles of Christianity. Feast: Mar. 18.

Cyril, Saint

(St. Cyril of Alexandria)
Cyril, Saint (Saint Cyril of Alexandria) (sĭrˈəl), d. A.D. 444, patriarch of Alexandria (412–44), Doctor of the Church, known for his animosity toward heretics and heathens. He drove the Jews from Alexandria, and under his rule Hypatia was killed. The great episode in his career was his struggle against Nestorianism, which culminated in the Council of Ephesus in 431 (see Ephesus, Council of). There Cyril presided and had the full support of Pope Celestine I. He returned triumphant, but he continued to be opposed by the Antiochene bishops, who tended toward Nestorianism; consequently, they stayed out of communion with Alexandria, and so with the church, for two years. In 433, Cyril consented to a compromise with Antioch by declaring that Christ had two natures, human and divine, and that in speaking of one nature he meant one Person. St. Cyril wrote much on theology, particularly on the problem of the Trinity. His doctrines, though deemed orthodox in his time, were in a sense a preface to those of Eutyches and of Monophysitism. Feast: Feb. 9.
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