It is not clear why signaling through TLR4 but not via other cytokine receptors
seems to contribute significantly to ethanol responses, because all of these receptors generally belong to the same receptor superfamily (i.e., the TLR-IL1-R superfamily) (Wald et al.
Taken together, these studies suggest that SOCS3 action shares elements of that of CIS and SOCS1 and exerts its inhibitory action through 2 steps; first; it is recruited into the vicinity of the JAKs (but not JAK itself) by binding to activated cytokine receptors
, and second, once localized at the receptor, SOCS3 likely inhibits JAK activity through its KIR.
To this end we considered a group of cytokine receptor
genes which are orthologous in Mouse and Human, two species which diverged quite recently, some 65-85 MYA (million years ago) [32, 33].
* Cytokines, growth factors, cytokine receptor
analogs, and cytokine receptor
Timans et al., "A receptor for the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23 is composed of IL-12Rbeta1 and a novel cytokine receptor
subunit, IL-23R," Journal of Immunology, vol.
Walz, "Signaling conformations of the tall cytokine receptor
gp130 when in complex with IL-6 and IL-6 receptor," Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, vol.
IL-7 signaling is mainly controlled by the availability of ligands and the expression of surface cytokine receptors
Polycationic NLSs are virtually ubiquitous in cytokine receptors
, ligands, or both .
Also, the cytokine receptors
are functionally expressed in the carotid body [13-15].
Alaaeddine et al., "Effect of IL-13 on cytokines, cytokine receptors
and inhibitors on human osteoarthritis synovium and synovial fibroblasts," Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol.
Posttranslational Processing of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Cytokine Receptors
Soluble cytokine receptors
and receptor antagonists, termed sTNFRs, IL-1R2, and IL-1Ra, were identified for TNF-[alpha] and IL-1, which modulate the actions of these cytokines.