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a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense) in Czechoslovakia and the overwhelming majority of the population of the Czech Socialist Republic (CSR). Of the 9.6 million Czechs living in Czechoslovakia, 9.5 million reside in the CSR (1977 estimate). A considerable number of Czechs live abroad, chiefly in Austria, Canada, and the USA. The Czechs speak the Czech language. Most of the believers among them are Catholics, and the rest adhere to Protestant denominations.

In the fifth and sixth centuries, Slavic tribes settled and gained the ascendancy in the area now known as Czechoslovakia. Written sources have preserved the names of some of these tribes: Czechs, Doudlebi, Croats, Lucané, Zlicane, Déčané, Pšované, Litoměřici, Hbané, and Glomači. The Czech tribe played a leading role in unifying these groups. In the ninth century, until 895, the Czech lands were part of the Great Moravian State. After its decline in the early tenth century, the center of political life shifted to Bohemia, where a state arose under the Czech Pfemyslid dynasty. In the 11th century Moravia was merged with Bohemia. The Czech nationality that began to evolve in the Czech state at this time included the Moravians, who nevertheless preserved some of their ethnic distinctiveness. Beginning in the 13th century the ethnic homogeneity of the country was undermined by German colonization, which the Czech kings and feudal lords encouraged in order to increase their revenues. Growing German domination, increasing feudal exploitation of the Czech peasantry, and the corruption of the Catholic Church precipitated the Hussite revolutionary movement in the first half of the 15th century.

In 1620, after the battle of the White Mountain (Bílá Hora), the Czech lands lost their political independence and became a hereditary possession of the Hapsburgs. For three centuries the ruling circles of the Austrian Empire (after 1867, Austria-Hungary) pursued a policy of germanization in Bohemia and Moravia. By the 18th century, German had become the administrative language, and the popular masses were the sole transmitters of the Czech language and culture. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, as the feudal system declined and capitalist relations arose, the modern Czech nation began to develop amid a growth of national consciousness. This period, known as the Czech Renaissance, saw the unfolding of a broad national movement and a campaign to revive the Czech language and to use it in all spheres of public life. Progressive writers and artists drew inspiration from the creativity of the people and introduced folklore themes in their works.

The collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918 led to the creation of the first national state of Czechs and Slovaks, the Czechoslovak Republic. In 1938–39 the republic was occupied by fascist German aggressors, who tried to suppress any manifestation of national life. The establishment of people’s rule in 1945 and the subsequent socialist transformations in the country stimulated a general economic and cultural revival and permitted the formation of a socialist Czech nation.

Folk creativity has played a major role in the development of the Czechs’ national culture—their literature, music, and art. In southwestern Bohemia (among the Chods) and in southeastern Moravia the national dress continues to be worn, and traditional crafts are flourishing. For more information about the history, economy, and culture of the Czechs, seeCZECH SOCIALIST REPUBLIC and CZECHOSLOVAKIA.


Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 1. Moscow, 1964.
Ocherki obshchei etnografii: Zarubezhnaia Evropa. Moscow, 1966.
Gratsianskaia, N. N. Etnograficheskie gruppy Moravii: K istorii etni-cheskogo razvitiia. Moscow, 1975.


References in periodicals archive ?
"On the European battlefield, the Czech people never yielded, and many anti-fascist heroes sprang up that all are familiar with," Xi said.
Twenty-six years later, the Czech people command artistic sensibilities that express both irreverence and tolerance.
We have a deep friendship between our peoples, between the Czech people and the Jewish people.
The Czech people of central Europe have a long and proud military tradition that stretches back to the religious wars of the 15th century when the Bohemian Hussite infantry, under the able leadership of their one-eyed general, Jan Ziska, repeatedly defeated the mounted chivalry of Germany and Austria and laid the foundations of modern Czech nationalism.
As well as bringing shame on their country their actions were a gross insult to the Czech people who loathe Hitler and all he stood for.
The Czech people have a saying, "Sto Lot," meaning "to the next 100 years." Here is my toast: Sto Lot, TD&T.
Jitka KovrEinkovEi, who works for the Czech People in Need, one of the few aid groups working in Aleppo, said that her organisation decided to stop working in IS territory in mid 2014 after the militants tried to control aid and set conditions on aid groups.
Czech people in the capital Prague have appreciated the creative Bulgarian apology for the crushing of the Prague Spring 45 years ago.
Overall, the film is an interesting take on the subject and it highlights the sense of sarcasm of the Czech people. It also shows how we can be active in society as we age without seeing ourselves as irrelevant in what Tkaloun describes in the movie as "the autumn of our lives".
Prague, March 13 (Petra) -- Foreign Minister Nasser Judeh on Tuesday met with Czech President Vaclav Klaus and conveyed the regards of His Majesty King Abdullah II and wishes for the Czech people for further progress and prosperity.
"I don't think these numbers are really all that surprising because I don't think Czech people are as liberal or accepting as they think they are," said Ales Rumpel, director of the country's gay film festival, Mezipatra, and a board member for the newly established nongovernmental gay rights group PROUD.
The Czech people are teaching their children about America's sacrifice for their freedom.

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