D-layer


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D-layer

(D-region) See ionosphere.
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The application of QT-QL criterion leads to the conclusion that, in the D-layer, the QL propagation occurs if the waves are propagating at relatively high frequencies (usually, an ionospheric radio-link works at frequency f [greater than or equal to] 2 MHz).
The nondeviative absorption occurs, for all ray-paths, in the D-layer and only for those paths with reflection in the F-layers, also in the E-layer; the Chapmans theory is a good approximation for nondeviative absorption on all these raypaths, insomuch that the trend of the electron density N with height h satisfies a well-known implicit relationship [1] and, in the limit of quasi-stationarity, the explicit relationship (19).
The ground wave tends to follow the Earth's surface, while the sky wave is refracted back down towards the ground by the D-layer ionisation.
Studying the SID recorded over different paths also allows research into the characteristics of the D-layer and its response to the solar flare.