DES


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DES

or

diethylstilbestrol

(dī'ĕth'əlstĭlbĕs`trôl), synthetic nonsteroid female sex hormone having the same physiological effects as estrogenestrogen
, any one of a group of hormones synthesized by the reproductive organs and adrenal glands in females and, in lesser quantities, in males. The estrogens cause the thickening of the lining of the uterus and vagina in the early phase of the ovulatory, or menstrual, cycle
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. In the 1940s and 50s DES was mistakenly believed to reduce the risk of miscarriage and was routinely prescribed for pregnant women believed to be at risk. In fact, it was later found to increase the risk of miscarriage and was then tested in a "morning-after" pill, a contraceptive pill that is taken after intercourse. In the late 1960s and early 70s a group of Boston physicians found that women whose mothers had taken DES during pregnancy had an unusually high rate of vaginal cancer, and it has since been implicated in various reproductive disorders and other conditions in female and male children of such mothers. The use of DES to prevent miscarriage was banned in 1973; its use as a growth accelerator in beef cattle was banned in 1979. It currently finds some use in the hormone treatment of certain types of cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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.

DES

(communications)
(biochemistry)

DES

DES

(1) (Digital Entertainment System) See digital media server.

(2) (Data Encryption Standard) A NIST-standard cryptographic cipher that uses a 56-bit key. Adopted by the NIST in 1977, it was replaced by AES in 2001 as the official standard. DES is a symmetric block cipher that processes 64-bit blocks in four different modes of operation, with the electronic code book (ECB) being the most popular.

Triple DES
By adding various multiple-pass methods, Triple DES increased security; for example, encrypting with one key, decrypting the results with a second key and encrypting it again with a third. However, the extra passes added considerable computing time to the process. DES is still used in applications that do not require the strongest security. See cipher, cryptography, NIST, AES and Fortezza.
References in periodicals archive ?
With most DES daughters beyond their childbearing years, new concerns have emerged.
Possible health effects on DES granddaughters also are being studied.
Marilyn Shenker, a marriage and family therapist in Sherman Oaks, learned in the early 1970s that she was exposed to DES.
To test whether the drug works through Wnt-7a, Sassoon and his colleagues gave DES daily to mice during days 15 to 18 of pregnancy.
The investigators next determined that uteri of newborn pups exposed to DES in the womb had unusually low Wnt-7a activity, although the gene's activity returned to normal 5 days after birth.
DES daughters have an increased risk of developing clear-cell carcinoma, a rare cancer of the vagina or cervix.
The low sensitivity of our model is also apparent in the high doses of DES and EP needed to be able to show a significant luciferase induction (Figures 1 and 2).
From measurements taken after mice pregnant with transgenic embryos were exposed to DES and EP, it was possible to evaluate the ability of the in vivo model to detect well-known estrogens in embryos exposed in utero.
Although the molecular structure of BPA and DES is similar, it remains unknown whether this contributes to the similarity in their kinetics in inducing luciferase activity.
DES in alliance with Lakefield Research and SENES consultants was awarded a five-year monitoring contract JES is maintaining and operating effluent treatment plants, undertakes environmental sampling and performs all compliance documentation for Rio Algom, facilities in he Elliot Lake area.
For experience, reliability and safety its DES in the long term.