DNA fingerprinting


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

DNA fingerprinting

or

DNA profiling,

any of several similar techniques for analyzing and comparing DNA from separate sources, used especially in law enforcement to identify suspects from hair, blood, semen, or other biological materials found at the scene of a violent crime. It depends on the fact that no two people, save identical twins, have exactly the same DNA sequence, and that although only limited segments of a person's DNA are scrutinized in the procedure, those segments will be statistically unique.

Methods

A common procedure for DNA fingerprinting is restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). In this method, DNA is extracted from a sample and cut into segments using special restriction enzymes. RFLP focuses on segments that contain sequences of repeated DNA bases, which vary widely from person to person. The segments are separated using a laboratory technique called electrophoresis, which sorts the fragments by length. The segments are radioactively tagged to produce a visual pattern known as an autoradiograph, or "DNA fingerprint," on X-ray film. A newer method known as short tandem repeats (STR) analyzes DNA segments for the number of repeats at 13 specific DNA sites. The chance of misidentification in this procedure is one in several billion. Yet another process, polymerase chain reactionpolymerase chain reaction
(PCR), laboratory process in which a particular DNA segment from a mixture of DNA chains is rapidly replicated, producing a large, readily analyzed sample of a piece of DNA; the process is sometimes called DNA amplification.
..... Click the link for more information.
, is used to produce multiple copies of segments from a very limited amount of DNA (as little as 50 molecules), enabling a DNA fingerprint to be made from a single hair. Once a sufficient sample has been produced, the pattern of the alleles (see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
..... Click the link for more information.
) from a limited number of genes is compared with the pattern from the reference sample. A nonmatch is conclusive, but the technique provides less certainty when a match occurs.

Applications

In criminal investigations, the DNA fingerprint of a suspect's blood or other body material is compared to that of the evidence from the crime scene to see how closely they match. The technique can also be used to establish paternity. First developed in 1984 by Alec Jeffreys, a British professor of genetics at the Univ. of Leicester, DNA fingerprinting has been accepted in most courts in the United States, and has in several notable instances been used to exonerate or free persons convicted of crimes, but the Supreme Court has ruled (2009) that convicted criminals do not have a constitutional right to DNA testing. All states have established DNA fingerprint databases and require the collection of DNA from convicted felons, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation has instituted a national DNA fingerprint database linking those of the states and including DNA collected in connection with federal offenses. DNA fingerprinting is generally regarded as a reliable forensic tool when properly done, but some scientists have called for wider sampling of human DNA to insure that the segments analyzed are indeed highly variable for all ethnic and racial groups. It is possible to create false genetic samples and use them to misdirect forensic investigators, but if those samples have been produced using gene amplification techniques they can be distinguished from normal DNA evidence.

The techniques used in DNA fingerprinting also have applications in paleontology, archaeology, various fields of biology, and medical diagnostics. It has, for example, been used to match the goatskin fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls. In biological classificationclassification,
in biology, the systematic categorization of organisms into a coherent scheme. The original purpose of biological classification, or systematics, was to organize the vast number of known plants and animals into categories that could be named, remembered, and
..... Click the link for more information.
, it can help to show evolutionary change and relationships on the molecular level, and it has the advantage of being able to be used even when only very small samples, such as tiny pieces of preserved tissue from extinct animals, are available.

Bibliography

See D. H. Kaye, The Double Helix and the Law of Evidence (2010).

DNA fingerprinting

[‚dē‚en′ā ′fiŋ·gər‚print·iŋ]
References in periodicals archive ?
DNA fingerprinting, performed on the DNA removed from a disfigured cadaver or from human remains, may provide the evidence needed to change the presumption of death to the certainty of death, since "currently the chance of error in a properly administered DNA test is greater than 10 billion to one" (JACHTER 2007).
The centre is using the world's latest technology of advanced DNA fingerprinting, By Neetu Chandra Sharma in New Delhi Authorities are taking necessary steps to fight Ebola.
DNA fingerprinting, for example, has made it definitive that Joseph Mengele, the Nazi doctor known as the "Angel of Death," was buried in Brazil; that the entire Romanov family, killed in 1917, including Anastasia, was discovered buried in the woods outside Ekaterineburg, Russia; and that a Jefferson male, although not necessarily Thomas, fathered children by his slave, Sally Hemings.
This process expands on a recently described method that permits automated target cell detection and virtual enrichment, microdissection, and identification of the genomic origin of haploidentical single cells by means of DNA fingerprinting (10).
I conclude this portion of the presentation with a discussion of applications of DNA fingerprinting, including its use in (1) criminal trials to either link an individual to a crime scene or to exonerate an innocent person, (2) paternity testing, (3) identification of unknown individuals (an example that resonates with students is the identification of victims from the 2001 World Trade Center attack), and (4) its use in medicine to identify genetic conditions that can be inherited in families.
They had become used to forensic detection proving to be the key factors in obtaining a conviction, but DNA fingerprinting? If that worked, their job would be so much easier.
DNA fingerprinting undertaken by the State Laboratory Institute showed that the bacteria causing the infections came from a common source.
The Salm-gene project a European collaboration for DNA fingerprinting for food-related salmonellosis.
The challenge it set was to create software that could integrate both types of DNA fingerprinting techniques, with other more traditional forensic information.
Difficult scientific areas, such as statistics and probability, genetics and the role of DNA fingerprinting, toxicology, and chemical instrumentation, certainly challenge the students.