genetic fingerprinting

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genetic fingerprinting

[jə¦ned·ik ′fiŋ·gər‚print·iŋ]
(forensic science)
A forensic identification technique that enables virtually 100% discrimination between individuals from small samples of blood or semen, using probes for hypervariable minisatellite deoxyribonucleic acid. Also known as DNA fingerprinting.
(cell and molecular biology)
Identification of chemical entities in animal tissues as indicative of the presence of specific genes.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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tuberculosis culture with no AFB seen in any specimen; 3) culture-positive specimen from a different patient processed or handled on the same day has an identical DNA fingerprint, and no epidemiologic connections exist between patients; 4) laboratory control strain has an identical fingerprint; and 5) time to growth detection is [greater than]30 days.
Estimating average within-group relatedness from DNA fingerprints. Molecular Ecology 1:223-232.
Thus, the DNA fingerprint from an innocent suspect could match that of the real criminal.
An index of similarity (|S.sub.xy~; e.g., Lynch 1990, 1991) between DNA fingerprints was calculated as the number of bands shared between each pair of individuals (|n.sub.xy~) divided by the total number of bands scored for both individuals (|n.sub.x~ + |n.sub.y~),
To settle this controversy, the panel -- which was convened by the National Academy of Sciences -- endorses a so-called "ceiling principle" for interpreting DNA fingerprints. Until scientists can perform studies to get firm estimates of the exact frequency of a random match within small populations, the panel recommends using a more cautious statistical technique that they calculate should yield results with a 1-in-6.25-million chance of an erroneous match.
tuberculosis Strains on the Basis of DNA Fingerprint Patterns by Using the IS6110 Method in Specific Geographic Areas.
The fragments formed a characteristic pattern, or DNA fingerprint, identical to that of coyote mitochondrial DNA.
Transmission was confirmed when the DNA fingerprints of source and secondary cases matched.
"These preliminary results demonstrate that DNA fingerprints are capable of changing completely the emphasis of blood-grouping [biochemical identifications] in forensic science," say Gill, Jeffreys and Werrett.
When DNA fingerprints for isolates analyzed from 1992 to 2000 were reviewed for clustering, we identified a cluster of 15 TB patients.
The possibility exists that clusters that occurred over several years were strains that lingered in the community but were not detected in our study; we obtained DNA fingerprints for only 55% of the cases in the community among nonhomeless persons and cannot rule out that possibility.