DNA

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DNA:

see nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

See GENETICS.

DNA

(biochemistry)

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that is the main constituent of the chromosomes of all organisms (except some viruses). The DNA molecule consists of two polynucleotide chains in the form of a double helix, containing phosphate and the sugar deoxyribose and linked by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine. DNA is self-replicating, plays a central role in protein synthesis, and is responsible for the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parents to offspring

DNA

(1) See Windows DNA and DNA storage.

(2) (Digital Network Architecture) Introduced in 1978, the DNA was Digital's umbrella term for its enterprise network architecture based on DECnet. See Digital Equipment.
References in periodicals archive ?
When DNA damage occurs, p53 activates DNA repair. If the damage to the DNA is irreparable, p53 initiates programmed cell-death (apoptosis) to eliminate the damaged cell.
Molecular mechanisms of mammalian DNA repair and the DNA damage checkpoints.
DNA repair array gene expression results showed that when this patient's results compare with the other NF1 patients without malignancy; ATR, CCNO, MLH1, NEIL1, NTHL1, RAD18, RAD 51, XRCC1, XRCC3 genes are overexpressed and ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, ERCC4, EXO1, FEN1, LIG1, LIG3, MPG, MRE11A, MSH2, NEIL2, PMS1, POLD3, RFC1, SMUG1, TDG, TOP3B genes are down-regulated in this patient (mother).
The researchers then concluded that as the amount of NAD+ in cells declines with age, there aren't enough of these molecules to prevent harmful interactions between proteins called DBC1 (which is found across a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to humans) and PARP1 (a protein that is known to control DNA repair).
More investigators are assessing the mechanisms and potential advantages of DNA repair, he said at the Orlando Dermatology Aesthetic and Clinical Conference.
The human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) genes play an important role in the DNA repair pathway [7] where hOGG1 has primary activity to remove the 8-OHdG from DNA through the BER mechanism whereas APE1 repairs basic AP sites in DNA.
It is suggested that an accumulation of damage to both the neuronal and virus DNA eventually reaches a level at which DNA repair pathways are activated.
As well as DNA repair, it can influence cell division and apoptosis, the programmed cell death process that helps defend the body against harmful cells that are damaged or infected.
Morris added: "Our finding that BRCA1 has several functions in DNA repair has implications for treatment.
Changes in DNA repair mechanisms were reported in all types of cancers.
The cells reprogrammed from mature skin and connective tissue cells donated by Fanconi anemia patients had the defective (FA) DNA repair pathway, which normally helps protect the genome from mutations.
Reduction of the DNA repair factor led to an accumulation of DNA damage and to neuronal shrinkage.