Genetic Information

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Genetic Information

 

information about the composition, structure, and nature of the exchange of substances constituting the organism (chiefly proteins and nucleic acids) and related functions that is contained in the hereditary structures of organisms (in the chromosomes, cytoplasm, cell organelles) and that is obtained from ancestors in the form of genes. In multicellular organisms with sexual reproduction, genetic information is transmitted from generation to generation through the sex cells or gametes, whose only function is to transmit and store genetic information. Microorganisms and viruses have special types of transmission of genetic information (such as transduction and transformation). Genetic information is contained chiefly in the chromosomes, where it is coded in a definite linear sequence of nucleotides in molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genetic information is realized in the course of ontogeny—development of the individual—by the transmission of genetic information from gene to character. All cells arise as a result of the division of a single original cell, the zygote, and therefore have the same set of genes and potentially the same genetic information. The specificity of the cells of different tissues is due to the fact that different genes are active in them, that is, all the genetic information is not realized, only the part required for the particular tissue to function.

IU. S. DEMIN

References in periodicals archive ?
So scientists at Chapman University determined the effects of common cooking methods on DNA sequencing results, using both full-length and mini-barcodes, which are shorter DNA sequences. They found that DNA barcoding is a robust tool for identifying fish species.
The team members reported that their process used specific DNA sequences called "hairpins" to cause a centimeter-size hydrogel sample to swell to 100 times its original volume.
This system can be customised to detect any DNA sequence in a mammalian cell and then trigger a desired response, including killing cancer cells or cells infected with a virus, the researchers said in the findings appeared in the journal Nature Methods.
DNAnexus said that its Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) delivers cost-effective solutions to the challenges companies face when building clinically compliant analysis pipelines for DNA sequence data, adding that it was designed to provide a centralized hub for managing data, collaborating with other scientists, sharing tools, and accessing diverse reference datasets, including genotypic and phenotypic data.
By teasing apart the tagging events that result from RA from those that help cause it, the scientists say they were able to spot tagged DNA sequences that may be important for the development of RA.
in [16] encoded binary information into DNA sequences. The resulting DNA sequence is mixed with dummy strands and can only be detected and isolated if the primer sequence is known.
A weighted directed graph was built for each DNA sequence. A vector that was generated from the adjacency matrix of the graph was assigned to each DNA sequence.
The fact that traces of its patented DNA sequence are contained in these imports does not entitle the industrial giant to ban marketing of the soy meal in the EU, ruled the EU Court of Justice, on 6 July.
In 1990, scientists in the United States and around the world initiated the Human Genome Project to provide a complete DNA sequence of the human genome within a 15-year time span.
(63) After being found in violation of its duties by the ECJ, the German Parliament compromised and implemented the Biotech Directive, but provided more restricted protection for human DNA sequence patents, keeping the same broad protection for plant and animal DNA sequences as provided in the Biotech Directive.
The invention provides for transgenic plants transformed with expression vectors containing a DNA sequence encoding ferulic acid esterase I from Aspergillus, preferably A.
The BigDye[R] XTerminator[TM] Purification Kit addresses the often cumbersome purification or 'cleanup' step in the Sanger Sequencing worldlow to produce higher quality DNA sequence data faster and with significantly fewer steps than other purification methods.