vaccine

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Related to DPT vaccine: BCG vaccine, Hib vaccine, Polio vaccine

vaccine:

see vaccinationvaccination,
means of producing immunity against pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, by the introduction of live, killed, or altered antigens that stimulate the body to produce antibodies against more dangerous forms.
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Vaccine

 

a preparation obtained from microorganisms (bacteria, rickettsias, viruses) or products of their activity and used for active immunization of human beings and animals for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Vaccine was first used in 1796 by the English physician E. Jenner, who inoculated persons with cowpox, or vaccinia (hence the name “vaccine”) to protect them against smallpox.

Live, killed, and chemical vaccines and toxoids are distinguished.

Live vaccines are made from specially attenuated cultures of microorganisms deprived of their capacity to cause disease but remaining capable of reproducing in the body and causing immunity. The first to create live vaccines against anthrax (1881) and rabies (1885) was the French microbiologist L. Pasteur. The live tuberculosis vaccine (BCG) proposed in 1926 by the French scientists A. Calmette and C. Guérin won universal recognition; it greatly reduced the tuberculosis rate. Many live vaccines were created by Soviet scientists: for example, typhus vaccine (P. F. Zdrodovskii, 1957-59), influenza vaccine (A. A. Smorodintsev, V. D. Solov’ev, and V. M. Zhdanov, 1960), brucellosis vaccine (P. A. Vershilova, 1947-51), and smallpox vaccine (M. A. Morozov, 1941-60). Vaccines are the only effective inoculative preparations for certain diseases (rabies, smallpox, plague, tularemia). Live vaccines generally produce long-lasting immunity.

Killed vaccines are made from microorganisms killed by physical methods (heating) or chemical methods (phenol, formaldehyde, acetone). Killed vaccines are used to prevent only those diseases for which live vaccines are not available (typhoid, paratyphoid B, whooping cough, cholera, tick-borne encephalitis). They provide less protection than live vaccines. Hence immunity develops only after a course of immunization (vaccination) consisting of several inoculations.

Chemical vaccines are substances isolated from bacterial cells by various chemical methods and containing the main elements that cause immunity. Chemical vaccines against intestinal infections were first employed in 1941 as part of the NIISI polyvalent vaccine proposed by the Soviet scientists N. I. Aleksandrov and N. E. Gefen. Chemical vaccines are used to provide protection against paratyphoid B, typhoid, and rickettsial diseases.

The development of immunity following the injection of toxoids results from the appearance in the blood of antibodies that neutralize the effect of a particular toxin. Toxoids were obtained for the first time during the years 1923-26 by the French scientist G. Ramon. Toxoids are used to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, gas gangrene, and staphylococcal infections.

Vaccines can be made from the causative agent of a single infection, so-called monovalent vaccines, or from a combination of two or more causative agents, polyvalent vaccines. The latter produce immunity to several infectious diseases.

There are various methods of administering vaccines. In the case of live vaccines, they are related to a certain extent to the routes by which the causative agents enter the body. Thus, poliomyelitis vaccine is administered orally; influenza vaccine intranasally; smallpox, anthrax, and tularemia vaccines epidermally; brucellosis vaccine intradermally; typhus vaccine subcutaneously. Killed vaccines and toxoids are injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly.

Live vaccine is used to treat rabies (vaccine therapy), the only method of protecting man from this fatal disease. Autovaccines are used to treat several chronic inflammatory diseases caused by staphylococci and streptococci.

In the USSR, vaccines are produced by scientific production institutions. The quality of the preparations is controlled by the L. A. Tarasevich State Control Institute for Biomedical Preparations in Moscow.

A. KH. KANCHURIN

Vaccines in veterinary medicine. The principles used in preparing and classifying vaccines for the treatment of animal diseases are the same as those for human diseases. The most widely used live vaccines in veterinary practice include anthrax vaccines—STI and GNKI; swine erysipelas vaccine —from the Konev strain and VR2; brucellosis vaccine— from strain 19; and vaccines against cholera, smallpox, and Newcastle disease. Killed vaccines are used to prevent and treat more than 20 infectious diseases of animals.

REFERENCES

Ramon, G. Sorok let issledovatel’skoi raboty. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from French.)
Vygodchikov, G. V. “Nauchnye osnovy vaktsinno-syvorotochnogo dela.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po mikrobiologii, klinike i epidemiologii infektsionnykh boleznei, vol. 3. Moscow, 1964. Pages 485-506.
Kravchenko, A. T., R. A. Saltykov, and F. F. Rezepov. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo po primeneniiu biologic he skikh preparatov. Moscow, 1968.

A. KH. KANCHURIN
and S. G. KOLESOV

vaccine

[vak′sēn]
(immunology)
A suspension of killed or attenuated bacteria or viruses or fractions thereof, injected to produce active immunity.

vaccine

Med
1. a suspension of dead, attenuated, or otherwise modified microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, or rickettsiae) for inoculation to produce immunity to a disease by stimulating the production of antibodies
2. (originally) a preparation of the virus of cowpox taken from infected cows and inoculated in humans to produce immunity to smallpox
3. of or relating to vaccination or vaccinia
4. Computing a piece of software designed to detect and remove computer viruses from a system
References in periodicals archive ?
In the Civil Surgeon's Office and in the district hospital, TT, BCG and DPT vaccines were stored in refrigerators, while measles and OPV vaccines were kept in freezers together with ice-packs.
The district hospital and the Civil Surgeon's Office stored DPT vaccines in refrigerators and measles vaccine in freezers, and it was, therefore, necessary to provide results for both the types of equipment.
The doctors say they don't know what caused all this, but I am convinced it can be traced back to the DPT vaccine.
DPT vaccine is given in three doses at monthly intervals starting usually from two months of age.
54) Only two companies continued to produce DPT vaccines and only one company manufactured the polio vaccine.
Though Special Master Millman found the case "tragic," she concluded the Clements family had not demonstrated that Andrew's DPT vaccines were the cause-in-fact of his injuries.
Health Net, a strong supporter of wellness, suggests that parents update their children's immunization schedules for the DPT vaccine (for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis), polio, MMR (for measles, mumps, and rubella), haemophilus influenza (for meningitis), hepatitis B, and varicella (for chicken pox).
Health Net Recommended Immunization Schedule Immunization Purpose Birth to 24 months DPT vaccine To prevent tetanus, Ages 2 months, 4 diphtheria and pertussis months, 6 months and between 12 and 18 months Polio vaccine To prevent polio Ages 2 months and 4 months and between 6 and 18 months MMR vaccine To prevent measles, mumps Once between 12 and and rubella 15 months Haemophilus influenza To prevent meningitis Four-dose series at (Hib) vaccine caused by Hib organism ages 2, 4, and 6 months and between 12 and 15 months; three-dose series at ages 2 and 4 months and between 12 and 15 months Hepatitis B virus To prevent HBV Three-dose series (HBV) vaccine should begin between birth and 2 months.
Some parents and doctors are hesitant to give premature babies the full dose of the DPT vaccine since these babies are not physiologically as developed as full-term babies of the same chronological age.
Actually, children who were immunized with the DPT vaccine had a lower SIDS rate than those who weren't.
MMR and DPT vaccines are "three-in-one," that is, three vaccines in one individually packaged dose without preservatives.
The Hepatitis B, tetanus and DPT vaccines contain aluminum, as do some batches of the flu shot.