Dada

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Related to Dada movement: dadaism, Dadaistic

Dada

(dä`dä) or

Dadaism

(dä`däĭzəm), international nihilistic movement among European artists and writers that lasted from 1916 to 1922. Born of the widespread disillusionment engendered by World War I, it originated in Zürich with a 1916 party at the Cabaret Voltaire and the recitation of nonsense poetry by the Romanian Tristan TzaraTzara, Tristan
, 1896–1963, French writer, b. Romania. He studied at the Univ. of Zürich, where he and his friends formulated the dadaist movement initially as a pacifist statement (see Dada).
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, also the author of the Dada Manifesto. Dada attacked conventional standards of aesthetics and behavior and stressed absurdity and the role of the unpredictable in artistic creation. In Berlin, Dada had political overtones, exemplified by the caricatures of George GroszGrosz, George
, 1893–1959, German-American caricaturist, draughtsman, and painter, b. Berlin. Before and during World War I he contributed drawings on proletarian themes to Illustration and other German periodicals. He was associated with the Dada group at that time.
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 and Otto DixDix, Otto,
1891–1969, German painter and draftsman. Dix fought in World War I and returned to Düsseldorf haunted by the horrors he had witnessed. In 1924 he published War, a series of 50 etchings, horrifying visions of war's victims executed with great clarity.
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. The French movement was more literary in emphasis; it centered around Tzara, André BretonBreton, André
, 1896–1966, French writer, founder and theorist of the surrealist movement. He studied neuropsychology and was one of the first in France to publicize the work of Freud.
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, Louis AragonAragon, Louis
, 1897–1982, French writer. One of the founders of surrealism in literature, Aragon abandoned that philosophy for Marxism after a trip to the USSR in 1931.
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, Jean ArpArp, Jean or Hans,
1887–1966, French sculptor and painter. Arp was connected with the Blaue Reiter in Munich, various avant-garde groups in Paris, including the surrealists, and the Dadaists in Zürich.
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, Marcel DuchampDuchamp, Marcel
, 1887–1968, French painter, brother of Raymond Duchamp-Villon and half-brother of Jacques Villon. Duchamp is noted for his cubist-futurist painting Nude Descending a Staircase,
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, Francis PicabiaPicabia, Francis
, 1878–1953, French painter, b. Paris. After working in an impressionist style, Picabia was influenced by cubism and later was one of the original exponents of Dada in Europe and the United States.
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, and Man RayRay, Man,
1890–1976, American photographer, painter, and sculptor, b. Philadelphia. Along with Marcel Duchamp, Ray was a founder of the Dada movement in New York and Paris. He is celebrated for his later surrealist paintings and photography.
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. The latter three carried the spirit of Dada to New York City. Typical were the elegant collages devised by Arp, Kurt SchwittersSchwitters, Kurt
, 1887–1948, German artist, b. Hannover. Influenced by Kandinsky, by Picasso's reliefs, and by Dada constructions, he invented Merz [trash] constructions—arrangements of diverse materials and objects.
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, and Max ErnstErnst, Max
1891–1976, German painter. After World War I, Ernst joined the Dada movement in Paris and then became a founder of surrealism. Apart from the medium of collage, for which he is well known, Ernst developed other devices to express his fantastic vision.
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 from refuse and scraps of paper, and Duchamp's celebrated Mona Lisa adorned with a mustache and a goatee as well as his Fountain (1917), a urinal signed "R. Mutt." Dada principles were eventually modified to become the basis of surrealismsurrealism
, literary and art movement influenced by Freudianism and dedicated to the expression of imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the conscious control of reason and free of convention.
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 in 1924. The literary manifestations of Dada were mostly nonsense poems—meaningless random combinations of words—which were read in public.

Bibliography

See R. Short, Dada and Surrealism (1980); S. C. Foster, ed., Dada-Dimensions (1985); H. Richter, Dada: Art and Anti-Art (1985); R. Motherwell, ed., The Dada Painters and Poets (1951, 2d ed. 1989); A. Codrescu, The Posthuman Dada Guide (2009); J. Rasula, Destruction Was My Beatrice (2015).

Dada

, Dadaism
a nihilistic artistic movement of the early 20th century in W Europe and the US, founded on principles of irrationality, incongruity, and irreverence towards accepted aesthetic criteria
www.peak.org/~dadaist/English/Graphics
References in periodicals archive ?
Although Stieglitz was never an active member of the Dada movement, he freely acknowledged their validity through the publication of their ideas in Camera Work and displayed some of their art at "291.
However ironic it might seem for the artifacts, posters, films, and pamphlets of the Dada movement to have found their way into some of the world's leading institutions of modern art this past year, a significant part of Dada's critical enterprise consisted in seeing itself not only as an attack on history, but also as a movement that possessed a history of its own.
Photomontage flourished in the German Dada movement of the early 1920s, where it became a powerful vehicle for political commentary.
He also provides information about the Dada movement, cubism, fascism, communism, pop art, and expressionism.
From the ashes rose the Dada movement, which defined art, as Danto writes, "as an expression of moral revulsion against a society for whom beauty was a cherished value.
These books are part of a unique project, to be completed in a couple of years' time, which aims to examine all aspects of the Dada movement that flourished in the early twentieth century in Central, Western and Eastern Europe as well as in the US and in Japan.
Oddly enough for a man who helped inaugurate the Dada movement, Arp's Brancusian lines bespeak an aesthete's delight in biomorphic forms: he picked out some of nature's most compelling shapes--often the human form--refined them, and rendered them in three dimensions.
She then explores such essential avenues as the links between the two men and Apollinaire, Les Six, the Parisian Dada movement and musical luminaries such as Debussy and Stravinsky.
First published in 1951, the book contains every major text of the Dada movement.
The hero ' s scatological language and absurdly inappropriate posturings, along with his grotesque physical proportions, anticipated characteristics of the dada movement and, later, of the theatre of the absurd.
An abstract artist of the dada movement might have sketched the representation of an animal's body surface that appears on the canvas of its brain surface.
By 1923 the Dada movement had largely dissipated, as the loosely affiliated artists pursued separate directions.