(6) On charms, see King James I, Daemonologie
[with Newes from Scotland], ed.
, James I asserts that such displays are always illusory and nothing more than "impressiones in the aire, easilie gathered by a spirite, drawing so neare to that substance himselfe....
James was said to be so upset by the evidence he heard, that he undertook a study of witchcraft and in 1597 published a book on his results, titled Daemonologie
But help is at hand, Edgy is rescued and taken to the Royal Society of Daemonologie
, where he believes he will be safe, but finds himself in more danger than he has ever known.
King James in Daemonologie
makes a connection between Satan and "the Italian Scoto yet living..." (Bk.l.Ch.
His own unnerving experiences as the target of the biggest witch conspiracy ever to hit Scotland resulted in the publication in 1597 of Daemonologie
a tract that was to have influence throughout the seventeenth century.
It may seem paradoxical to translate Machiavelli, another name for the Devil, for a king who would later write a Daemonologie
. On the other hand, if one is a theologian one reads St Augustine; if one is a politician and a scholar (and James certainly prided himself on being both) one probably wants to read Machiavelli.
Furthermore, the knowledge that this play was written for King James I explains the malevolent portrayal of the witches, as it was this English monarch who not only wrote Daemonologie
(1597), a lengthy dialogue condemning various types of black magic, but also enforced the sterner Witchcraft Act of 1604 that labelled necromancy as heresy and intensified the witch-hunting mania (Pickering 154).
While James VI of Scotland insisted in Daemonologie
(1597), that there were twenty female witches for every male, the only reason he cited for the disproportion was women's greater frailty.
In other cases, he draws upon nonliterary documents (e.g., King James's Daemonologie
and other late 16th-century accounts of witchcraft), contemporary testimony and anecdotes, and a variety of actions and persons drawn from cultural, social, and political events during Shakespeare's lifetime.
is present as are Basilicon Doron, The Trew Law of Free Monarchies, A Counterblaste to Tobacco, and A Meditation Upon the 27.