Studies present a comparative discussion of the history of migration movements from the long 17th century to the 19th century from southeastern Europe towards eastern-central Europe, in particular the Habsburg lands, the Danubian principalities
, and further to Ukraine and Russia.
Written in an eminently readable style, with repeated efforts to evoke the pathos of the events, the book has the familiar 1848 set pieces--the Parisian June Days, the Frankfurt National Assembly, Garibaldi's heroism in the Roman Republic and Kossuth's rallying Hungary to war against Austria--but it also includes less well known episodes, such as the great Romanian mass meeting in Blaj, or the uprisings in the Danubian Principalities
of Moldavia and Wallachia.
Then, during the period 1804-1833, the peninsula was rocked by three major revolts in Serbia, the Danubian principalities
, and Greece.
In some places, the author is simply mistaken, as, for example, in his assertion that the Russian occupation of the Danubian Principalities
and the Ottomans' ultimatum were surprises to observers or those most concerned (15).
The Christian population of the Danubian principalities was struggling to shake off the Ottoman yoke and Russia was poised to extend her influence over the whole of the Balkans, to isolate Turkey from Europe and gain control over the Straits.
The Russian intervention in Hungary had some serious implications for developments in the East, the first being the occupation of the Danubian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
Adhering to his `secret diplomacy', he refused to discuss the Russian occupation of the Danubian principalities and only said `that it was justified on the basis of self defence and bears no other consequence'.
Petersburg (1854); after persuading Czar Nicholas I to withdraw Russian troops from the Danubian principalities
(and thus end a possible threat to Austria), he persuaded the Austrians not to enter the war; appointed chief of the military cabinet (February 1857); promoted to generalleutnant (1861); saw action during the brief war between Denmark on one side and Austria and Prussia on the other (February-August 1864); was appointed governor of Schleswig; occupied Holstein (southern region of Jylland) in the opening stages of the Seven Weeks' War (June-August 1866); led a division in the invasion of Hanover, and took part in Gen.
In successive chapters Roberts, a former British diplomat in Hungary, details the tsarist government's alarm over the 1848 revolutions in central Europe, its decision to reinforce Turkish control over the Danubian principalities
(and reaffirm Russia's right to meddle in Turkish affairs), the October revolution in Vienna, the initial Russian intervention in Transylvania, and the tsar's decision in April 1849 to commit Russian troops to Hungary.