In 1990 DeLancey was less certain about the touchstone quality of the pure Hare mirative, writing of lo in Hare that "precisely this semantic category occurs in the evidential systems of at least three other unrelated languages", namely Turkish, Tibetan, and "the Dardic languages
Kalasha and Khowar" (4) (DeLancey 1990: 157).
Grierson has listed Shina, Kashmiri and Kohistani as part of Dardic languages
. Others are categorised as Turkic and Indo-Tibetan languages.
Moreover, an observation concerning New Indo-Aryan made by Jules Bloch (1965: 69) should be stressed: "the modern future in -h- [...] is widely distributed, even outside the areas in which sibilants normally open." Indeed, according to the survey by Colin Masica (1991: 206f.), among the New Indo-Aryan languages the change MI s (< OI s, s, s) > h is observed 1.) in Sinhalese-Maldivian; 2) in some languages of the northwestern zone, i.e., in Sindhi, Lahnda dialects, and, among the Dardic languages
, sometimes in Kashmiri; 3) in some languages situated in the western part of the central zone, i.e., in North Gujarati, Western Rajasthani (S.
Other Nuristani and Dardic languages have *s-/c-: Kati cu, cuyu 'sand', Waigali so, Khowar sugur, Kalasha gugou and gigol-.
(16) Only in Dardic languages has this lemma semantically split into 'cold' and 'fever', compare Gawar-Bati sal 'fever' but sala, solo 'cold', Savi sal 'fever' but salo 'cold'.
Dumaki is nota Dardic language--even though it has been heavily influenced by Dardic Shina, by an unknown other Dardic language and by Burushaski--but is related to languages of the North Indian plains.
(17) The Dardic languages
also have an expanded variant, as do the Iranian languages, both western (Persian, Lori) and eastern (Dari), where the trill is preceded by an occlusion that is sometimes labial and sometimes dental.
Buddruss with Muhammad Amin Zia; Radloff and Shakil (1998) and Radloff (1999) on Gilgit Shina; Liljegren (2008) on Palula; earlier detailed treatments of Kohistani Shina by Schmidt (2001, 2004, 2006); joint efforts by Schmidt and Kohistani (1995, 1998, 2001) and by Schmidt and Zarin (1981); and work on eastern Shina by Hook (1990, 1996, 1997), it is making Shina one of the better-studied of the Dardic languages.
Since relative clauses in some Dardic languages, for example Khowar and Kalasha, are constructed with k- (interrogative) forms, this Kohistani Shina relative clause with joo 'what' raises the question of whether it is a variant of the k- word strategy, an influence from those I-A languages employing an inherited j- (relative) word strategy, or both.
The same low central vowel contrast is represented variously by a / a (for Hindi, Urdu, Magahi, Bhojpuri, Marathi, Kashmiri, several Dardic languages
, and of course Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit), a / [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (for Maithili, Panjabi, Nepali, Gujarati, Sindhi, Sinhala), and in the Eastern languages (where the second of these vowels--the so-called "inherent vowel"--takes on a back rounded quality) by a / [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ~ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for Assamese, a / [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for Oriya, but again by a / a for Bangla.