Daucus


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Daucus

 

a genus of plants of the family Umbelliferae. They are biennial and, less frequently, annual or perennial herbs with pinnately decompound leaves. There are up to 60 known species, distributed in Mediterranean countries, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and America.

The best-known species is the carrot (Daucus sativus, or D. carote), a biennial with a coarse, woody, whitish root. Cultivated forms of Daucus include those used for food and those used for fodder. In the first year the plant forms an edible root with a radical rosette of leaves; in the second year it forms a flower stalk. The flowers are bisexual and gathered into a compound umbel. There is cross-pollination. The fruit is a dry diachenium. The seeds have a distinctive odor as a result of the essential oils they contain. The fleshy, rounded edible root is truncate-conical, cylindrical, or funnel-shaped; it weighs 30–100 g (sometimes to 200 g or more). The roots of garden varieties are red or orangered (less frequently, yellow); in fodder varieties, they are white, yellow, white with green tops, or red. In some wild and semicultivated Middle Asian varieties the roots are dark purple (almost black). The color of the roots is due to pigments.

The species D. sativus resulted from the crossbreeding of D. maxinus with D. carota. Carrots were cultivated by the ancient Greeks and Romans. Their cultivation became widespread in Europe in the 14th century. Carrots are raised in Europe, Asia, America, and Africa. In the USSR they are grown almost everywhere. The root of the garden carrot contains on the average 88.8 percent water, 1.1 percent nitrogenous matter, 0.2 percent fat, 9.2 percent carbohydrates, and 0.7 percent ash. Carrots are rich in vitamins B1, B2, and PP, as well as in provitamin A, or carotene (up to 25 mg percent). Carrots are eaten in raw and cooked form, used as flavoring, canned, and dried. Carotene and carrot juice are extracted from them. Carrots are a valuable feed for all types of agricultural animals. The harvest is 300–400 quintals per hectare (ha) or greater. Among varieties that have been regionalized are the carotene (Losinoostrovskaia 13, Nantes 4, Moscow Winter A-515, and Chantenay 2461) and the low-carotene (Mirzoi Red 228, Mshaki-surkh, Mirzoi Yellow 304, and Mshak 195).

The best soils for carrots are light sandy loams, fertile garden soils, and soddy alluvials. Carrots are relatively cold resistant and drought resistant. The seeds sprout at a temperature of 4°–5°C between 15 and 20 days. During plowing at least 30 tons/ha of humus should be applied; on acid soils, 10–15 quintals/ha of lime should be added. The seeds are sprouted five or six days before sowing. Sowing is done with seeding machines. Care includes thinning, killing weeds with herbicides, applying mineral fertilizers, and irrigating during dry periods. For early production, the seeds are sown in late fall. Insect pests include the carrot rust fly, Depressaria depresella, and Loxostege palealis. Diseases include powdery mildew, downy mildew, phomosis, leaf blight, dry rot, and black rot.

REFERENCES

Agapov, S. P. Morkov’, sel’derei, petrushka, pasternak. Moscow, 1955.
Drobysheva, N. A. Morkov’ petrushka, pasternak. Moscow, 1961.
Markov, V. M. Ovoshchevodstvo. Moscow, 1966.

P. F. TEREKHOV

References in periodicals archive ?
phytochemical screening and pharmacological evaluation of anethum graveolens L, Apium graveolens L, Daucus carota L.
On the other hand, on carrot (Daucus carota) (the case of pollination of bisexual flowers which are aggregated, with exposed reproductive organs and of the sizes smaller than the pollinator, second situation), two behavior patterns were shown by the visitors: (i) nectar as well as pollen collection: they moved from one flower/floret to the other and (ii) only pollen collection: they ran/splashed over the floral disc/platform/ball and scattered pollen over several stigmas in each foraging effort (Figure 5).
[73] evaluated the color of some commercial extracts from grapes (Vitis vinifera), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), purple carrot (Daucus carota), red radish (Raphanus sativus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), red cabbage (Brassica oleracea), and chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa); the chroma values from these two last sources were close to the values obtained for the BR (around 20).
Las zanahorias (Daucus carota L.) frescas fueron obtenidas en un mercado local en la ciudad de Monteria, Colombia, mantenidas bajo refrigeracion a 4[grados]C y usadas en los experimentos dentro de las 24 horas siguientes.
Daucus carota (seeds) US bath, 40 kHz, Reduction time in 3 20[degrees]C, 20 min, times and increase in 1:10 (sample:water), the ration of HD by 3 h.
Response of carrot (Daucus carota L.) growth and yields to organic manure and inorganic fertilizers.
Scientific name Common name Pre-1940 Alliaria petiolata garlic mustard Artemesia vulgaris mugwort Carduus nutans (D) musk thistle Centaurea stoebe spotted knapweed Cirsium arvense Canada thistle x Cirsium vulgare bull thistle x Clematis terniflora sweet autumn clematis Conium maculatum (D) poison hemlock Convolvulus arvense field bindweed x Coronilla varia (P) crown vetch x Cynanchum louiseae black swallow-wort x Daucus carota Queen Anne's lace x Dioscorea polystachya (D) Chinese yam Dipsacus fullonum common teasel x Dipsacus laciniatus cut-leaved teasel x Euphorbia esula leafy spurge x Glechoma hederacea creeping Charlie x Hesperis matronalis dame's rocket x Humulus japonicus (D) Japanese hops Hypericum perforatum St.
The most frequently observed species were Poa pratensis (61.5%), Daucus carota (47.9%), Solidago canadensis (42.5%), and Promus inermis (38.7%).
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a vegetable of the group of roots of the family Apiaceae and is considered one of the most common vegetable crops grown in Brazil.
The highest value of MTF was found for Portulaca oleracae followed by Spinacia oleracae L., Allium cepa, Malva neglecta, Lactuca sativa, Solanum tuberosum, Coriandum sativum, Pisum sativum, Lycopersicum esculan:, Phaseolus vulgaris, Hebiscus esculantus, B.oleracae capitita, Daucus carota, B.
Examination of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA genetic variation in carrot, Daucus carota.