David Baltimore


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Baltimore, David

(bôl`tĭmôr), 1938–, American microbiologist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Rockefeller Univ., 1964. He conducted (1965–68) virology research at the Salk Institute before becoming a professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1972. In 1970 he and his wife Alice Huang discovered reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that allows RNA to synthesize DNA in retrovirusesretrovirus,
type of RNA virus that, unlike other RNA viruses, reproduces by transcribing itself into DNA. An enzyme called reverse transcriptase allows a retrovirus's RNA to act as the template for this RNA-to-DNA transcription.
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. He shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Renato DulbeccoDulbecco, Renato
, 1914–2012, Italian-American virologist, b. Catanzaro, Italy. In 1947 he came to the United States to work with Salvador Luria at Indiana Univ. in Bloomington, moving to the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, in 1949. He became a U.S.
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 and Howard TeminTemin, Howard Martin,
1934–94, American virologist, b. Philadelphia, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology, 1959. A professor at the Univ. of Wisconsin in Madison, Temin began his cancer research while still a student, working with his professor Renato Dulbecco and
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 for his experimental confirmation of the connection between certain RNA viruses and cancer.

Appointed president of Rockefeller Univ. in 1990, he resigned the next year after a scientific fraud scandal. A paper he coauthored was said to contain fraudulent data from another author, Dr. Thereza Imanishi-Kari, and Baltimore was criticized for his vehement defense of the paper despite the evidence. In 1996, an appeals panel overturned the verdict of the original investigating office, the federal Office of Scientific Integrity (now the Office of Reasearch Integrity), and Baltimore and Imanishi-Kari were exonerated. In 1997 Baltimore was appointed president of the California Institute of Technology.

Bibliography

See D. J. Kevles, The Baltimore Case: A Trial of Politics, Science, and Character (1998).

Baltimore, David

 

Born Mar. 7, 1938, in New York. American virologist. Member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Baltimore studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Rockefeller Institute. He worked in the molecular biology department of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the years 1964–65 and at the Salk Institute of Biological Studies in San Diego from 1965 to 1968. Since 1968 he has taught at MIT, where he became a professor of biology in 1972.

In 1970, simultaneously with H. Temin and independently of him, Baltimore extracted the enzyme known as RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase (revertase) from an oncogenic RNA-containing virus. He showed that the genetic information of the oncogenic RNA-containing virus undergoes reverse transcription with the aid of the enzyme. The resulting DNA-product is then included in the genome of the cell; as a result of this process, a normal cell becomes a cancer cell.

Baltimore shared the Nobel Prize in 1975 with R. Dulbecco and H. Temin.

Baltimore, David

(1938–  ) virologist, geneticist; born in New York City. He was a research fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (1963–64) and Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1964–65), then moved to the Salk Institute of Biological Studies (1965–68), where he began investigations of RNA viruses. He returned to MIT (1968–90), where he discovered a tumor virus enzyme he termed "reverse transcriptase" which can transform the host cell's DNA into cancer-causing viral RNA (1970); for this he shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in physiology. In 1972 he synthesized part of the gene for hemoglobin; he then worked on developing synthetic vaccines. An outspoken advocate of self-policing of genetic engineering by scientists, he became president of Rockefeller University in 1990, but resigned in 1991 after an extensive controversy resulted from his attempt to impede an investigation of a paper he had sponsored (1986) by a former MIT postdoctoral researcher who had falsified her data.
References in periodicals archive ?
Drugs that stop cells from cooperating with the lethal virus might be valuable alternatives to those that attack the ever-changing virus directly, said David Baltimore, a California Institute of Technology biologist and HIV researcher.
FAME: David Baltimore, president of California Institute of Technology, said, ``Caltech honors Einstein as a scientist, and we admire him for the ability to take on the mantle of 'public intellectual.
Lander recognizes Botstein and David Baltimore as the two people who have bad the greatest impact on his career--his mentors, so to speak (see sidebar on pg.
David Baltimore, president of the California Institute of Technology and 1975 laureate in medicine, tell you: "It was like entering a fairy tale.
In an editorial appearing in the same issue of Science, Nobel laureate David Baltimore, president of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, warned that a moratorium on embryo stem cell research and transplantation could be "devastating.
David Baltimore of Pasadena, California, home of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory there, opined--in the International Herald Tribune and the New York Times--that the Bush administration had better give ample support to basic scientific research because, well, we cannot leave such matters to the free choices of American citizens.
David Baltimore, a founding member of ARIAD's scientific advisory board and a Nobel laureate, Dr.
At the risk of pitching the stakes too high, I am reminded of an essay David Baltimore wrote in 1978 titled "The Limits of Science," in which the Nobel Prize--winning virologist considered whether scientists should conduct certain kinds of experimentation just because they could do so.
The study, by researchers at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and New York's Columbia University, was quickly hailed as a landmark by David Baltimore, head of a government advisory committee on AIDS vaccines.
The authors also describe the professional damage endured by Nobel prizewinning scientist and Imanishi-Kari co-author David Baltimore.
Extreme publicity surrounded the case because one of the paper's authors, Nobelist David Baltimore, mounted a vocal campaign to defend Imanishi-Kari's work.
This same discovery was made independently by the American biochemist David Baltimore (b.