Debts


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Related to Debts: Bad debts, national debts

Debts

 

the total of obligations due an enterprise, organization, or establishment from legal “persons” [such as corporations] or individuals as a result of economic relations. The source of payment of debts is the debtor’s own funds diverted from working capital.

Under the conditions governing the socialist economy, debts are subdivided according to their origin into indebtedness arising from the normal process of economic activity and indebtedness arising from budgeting and paying violations, as well as from violations of socialist legality. To the first category belong such items as advances to suppliers under contracts (for gas, electric power, motor-transport and communication services, and purchase of certain materials); planned and preliminary payments for which the goods were to be delivered later; the liability of officials responsible for returns (in connection with advances issued to them) for failure to act within the time permit they have; and the liability of tenants of housing units for nonpayment of rent for the last month. The second category of debts covers debts connected with deficits, embezzlement, and misappropriation; claims acknowledged by defendants or adjudged by arbitration and arising from inadequacies in the quantities or qualities of goods (or services) with regard to the selected previously fixed assortment; and other forms of overdue debts.

From the point of view of economic content, debts also include liabilities of buyers for goods delivered and work completed and not paid for on time, as well as for goods on which the documents were not submitted to the bank for collection as collateral for loans; liabilities of production and clerical workers for loans received for individual housing construction and purchase of goods on credit in excess of the bank loans issued for these purposes, and so on. Debts for which the period of limitation has expired are, with the permission of the manager of the enterprise or organization, written off as a loss with a notification sent to a higher agency. Persons guilty of allowing time to run out in cases involving limitations of actions are held responsible.

I. N. GASKAROVA


Debts

 

the total money of an enterprise, organization, or institution that is owed to legal or physical entities.

In the process of the economic activities of socialist enterprises, debt occurs naturally for incomplete payments; this is a normal indebtedness to creditors. Such indebtedness includes debts to suppliers within the established due dates of bills, debts to production and office employees for wages and to trade union organizations for social security deductions, debt incurred through the significantly early receipt of materials or capital stocks in comparison with the term of their payment, debts to financial bodies for the turnover tax and profit payments within the current payment dates, debts caused by excesses of actual total monetary accumulation in comparison with the established plan, and debts to suppliers under offsetting of payments. Debts may also arise through the violation of financial discipline and the established payment procedure. This category includes indebtedness to suppliers for bills not paid on time and for deliveries not invoiced and debts to suppliers formed when the received materials or capital stocks exceed the total paid bills. Debts for which the period of limitation has expired go to the state budget as income.

I. N. GASKAROVA

References in classic literature ?
"Either pay thy debt as I have said, or release thy land and get thee gone from out my hall."
But now the Prior's hands dropped at his sides and the Prior's head hung upon his shoulder, for not only had he lost all hopes of the land, but he had forgiven the Knight one hundred pounds of his debt and had needlessly paid the man of law fourscore angels.
Thus rode forth good Sir Richard of the Lea to pay his debt to Robin Hood this bright and merry morn.
sorry for thee, yet I am right glad that I have had a chance to pay a part of my debt of kindness to thy good master Robin Hood, for it might have gone ill with thee had I not come, young man."
Quoth he in a trembling voice, "I owe thee a debt I can never hope to repay, Sir Richard, for let me tell thee, I would rather lose my right hand than have such ill befall young David of Doncaster as seemed like to come upon him at Denby."
These narrow notions about debt, held by the old fashioned Tullivers, may perhaps excite a smile on the faces of many readers in these days of wide commercial views and wide philosophy, according to which everything rights itself without any trouble of ours.
It is your debt. You came into being with this debt upon you.
Determined to help in the struggle to clear the homestead from debt, they had no alternative but to go into service.
After the fathers were out of debt, the daughters married the sons of neighbours--usually of like nationality-- and the girls who once worked in Black Hawk kitchens are to-day managing big farms and fine families of their own; their children are better off than the children of the town women they used to serve.
The Government of Rwanda has dismissed reports from a foreign journalist claiming that Rwanda's debt to the Republic of China incapacitates government capacities to offer basic services for citizens.
The country's debt is expected continue its declining trend as recorded debt ratios for the first quarter of 2019 showed corresponding decreases on the back of a more 'proactive' debt management of the government under the Duterte administration, the Department of Finance (DOF) said on Thursday.
Los Angeles, CA, March 27, 2018 --(PR.com)-- Debt relief and credit card debt consolidation programs are becoming increasingly sought after by Americans today as consumer debt is at an all-time high.