Debussy, Claude Achille

Debussy, Claude Achille

(klôd äshēl` dəbüsē`), 1862–1918, French composer, exponent of musical impressionismimpressionism,
in music, a French movement in the late 19th and early 20th cent. It was begun by Debussy in reaction to the dramatic and dynamic emotionalism of romantic music, especially that of Wagner.
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. He studied for 11 years at the Paris Conservatory, receiving its Grand Prix de Rome in 1884 for his cantata L'Enfant Prodigue. After traveling in Europe and Russia, Debussy settled in Paris in 1887 and devoted himself to composing for the rest of his life. In his music he developed a new fluidity of form and explored unusual harmonic relationships and dissonances. By making use of the whole-tone scale, instead of the traditional Western musical scalescale,
in music, any series of tones arranged in a step-by-step rising or falling order of pitch. A scale defines the interval relationship of each tone to the others upon which the composition depends.
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, he achieved new nuances of mood and expression, as in his famous tone poem Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, 1894). Inspired by Mallarmé's pastoral poem, it is one of Debussy's most sensuous and evocative orchestral works, lending itself perfectly to ballet. According to Pierre BoulezBoulez, Pierre
, 1925–2016, French conductor and composer of modernist classical music. He studied at the Paris Conservatory with Olivier Messiaen (1944–45) and studied twelve-tone technique with René Leibowitz (1946).
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, it marked the beginning of modern music, and established Debussy as the preeminent French composer of his era. Other outstanding orchestral pieces are his Nocturnes (1899) and La Mer (The Sea, 1905). His piano works exploit to the utmost the subtle coloristic possibilities of the instrument. Among them are Suite bergamasque (pub. 1905), containing the popular Clair de lune; Estampes (1903); The Children's Corner (1908); 24 preludes, including La Cathédrale engloutie (1910); and 12 études. He also wrote many exquisite songs and an opera, Pelléas et Mélisande (1892–1902), based on the drama by Maeterlinck.

Bibliography

See The Poetic Debussy: A Collection of His Song Texts and Selected Letters (ed. by M. G. Cobb, 1982); reminiscences of Marguerite Long (tr. 1972); biographies by V. I. Seroff (1956), E. Lockspeiser (2 vol., 1962–65, rev. ed. 1980), and S. Walsh (2018).

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