Decarboxylation


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Related to Decarboxylation: Decarboxylation reaction

Decarboxylation

 

the elimination of CO2 from the carboxyl group of carboxylic acids RCOOH. Heating such an acid with soda lime yields the hydrocarbon RH and CO2. Such carboxylic acids as cyanoacetic acid, CNCH2COOH, and malonic acid, CH2(COOH)2, lose CO2 upon simple heating. Upon treatment with concentrated H2SO4, oxalic acid yields CO, CO2, and water; formic acid yields CO2 and H2. Aromatic acids undergo decarboxylation when heated in quinoline in the presence of copper powder.

Fermentation decarboxylation plays an important part in metabolic processes. Amino acids are decarboxylated by decarboxylases, whose coenzyme is primarily phosphopyridoxal. Decarboxylation of amino acids is widespread among microorganisms, particularly the bacteria that are part of the microflora of the intestines of animals and man. Decarboxylation of a number of amino acids in animal tissues leads to formation of biogenic amines (histamine and serotonin, as well as γ-aminobutyric acid, taurine, and noradrenaline). The decarboxylation of α-keto acids is brought about by decarboxylases, whose coenzyme is thiamine pyrophosphate. The oxidation decarboxylation of pyrotartaric and α-ketoglutaric acids in animals and plants plays a large part in the Krebs cycle. In cells of microorganisms, pyrotartaric acid can be decarboxylated without access of oxygen, for example, in alcoholic fermentation.

References in periodicals archive ?
Reis, "Inhibition of mammalian nitric oxide synthases by agmatine, an endogenous polyamine formed by decarboxylation of arginine," Biochemical Journal, vol.
The input of NADPH via malate decarboxylation in BSC does not inhibit photosynthesis, because it merely compensates for insufficient NADPH synthesis in BSC, which lack PSII activity (Kirchanscki, 1975).
This could potentially relate to enzymatic decarboxylation of carbamate and jY-sulfocarbamoyl PST as reported in a number of different clam species including Protothaca staminea (Sullivan et al.
Then, reaction is followed by imine hydrolysis and decarboxylation respectively (See Scheme 1).
They may have been caused by enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids through the metabolism of yeasts during alcohol fermentation and/or lactic acid bacteria during malolactic fermentation (LONVAUD-FUNEL, 2001).
The next step involves the 5HTP decarboxylation by a nonspecific decarboxylase, resulting in serotonin.
The basic cadaverine and putrescine, are aliphatic diamines and are causative of the odor of dead animals that originate from the amino acids, arginine and lysine by bacterial decarboxylation.
In addition, droxidopa is a synthetic catecholamine that is directly converted to norepinephrine (NE) via decarboxylation, resulting in increased levels of NE in the nervous system, both centrally and peripherally, concluded the company.
14-20] This enzyme catalyses the decarboxylation of L-glutamate into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
They are derived from endocrine stem cells of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) system, and can potentially cause clinical syndromes due to hypersecretion of biogenic amines and polypeptides.
Biogenic amines (BA) are generally formed through the decarboxylation of specific free amino acids by exogenous decarboxylases released by microbial species associated with fermented food and beverages.