Human carcinomas variably express the complement inhibitory proteins CD46 (membrane cofactor protein), CD55 (decay-accelerating factor
), and CD59 (protectin).
Nussenzweig, "Release of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) from the cell membrane by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC).
Coyne, "Phospholipid-anchored and transmembrane versions of either decay-accelerating factor or membrane cofactor protein show equal efficiency in protection from complement-mediated cell damage," Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.
(2000) transplanted livers from wild-type pigs or pigs transgenic for the human complement-regulatory protein, human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF), into immunosuppressed baboons.
Transgenic pigs expressing human CD59 and decay-accelerating factor produce an intrinsic barrier to complement-mediated damage.
1 (DAF1) or CD55 is a 70 KDa member of proteins which regulates complement system on the cell surfaces and protects cells from complement attack.