Deccan Plateau


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Deccan Plateau

 

(from Sanskrit dakshin, or south), a plateau covering the interior of the Hindustan peninsula, between the Narmada River on the north and the Cauvery River on the south. The plateau covers about 1 million sq km. Its surface is raised at the edges and tilted eastward, so that most rivers cross the plateau from west to east and empty into the Bay of Bengal. The plateau’s relief is determined by broad expanses of Mesozoic and Paleo-Neocene outcrops reaching respectively 1,000-1,500, 600-900, and 300-500 m. There are also laterite crusts reaching as high as 100 m, above which rise insular mountains of 1,000-2,000 m with domed peaks. The northwestern part of the Deccan plateau is typified by stepped plateau denudational structures in the relief. The river valleys in the central regions are broad, and those on the borders of the plateau are narrow and precipitous. Geologically, the Deccan plateau forms part of the Indian platform, which is composed chiefly of Archean and Proterozoic gneisses, crystalline schists and quartzites, partially alternating with granite intrusions. In the northwest there are basalt mantles (traps) of the upper Cretaceous and Eocene epochs, ranging in thickness from 1,500 to 1,800 m and covering about 520,000 sq km. There are deposits of iron, copper, manganese, tungsten, gold, and coal.

The climate of the Deccan plateau is subequatorial monsoon. The basic seasons are a dry, cool period (November to February), a hot, dry period (March and April), and a hot, rainy period (May to October). Annual precipitation in the central region is 500-700 mm and on the windward slopes 2,500-3,000 mm. The maximum rain falls in the summer. The average temperature in May, the warmest month, is 29°-32°C, and in January is 21°-24°C. The rivers Narmada, Mahānadī, Godāvari, Cauvery, and the others have a monsoon profile. The predominant soil types are red laterites, reddish-brown soils, and on traps, black tropical soils, or regurs. Zonal types of landscape are monsoon deciduous forests on the windward slopes, dry savanna and sparse forests in the central region, and arid savannas in the west, in the rain shadow of the western Ghats. Virgin forests are preserved on 10-15 percent of the territory, mainly on mountain slopes and hills. They are mainly teak, sal, ironwood, and bamboo. About 60 percent of the territory is cultivated. There are more than 150,000 reservoirs for irrigation and water supply. The basic agricultural crops are grains, beans, oil-bearing plants, and cotton. The remaining territory is a heavily used grazing area, which includes the secondary thin forest, scrub growth, and jungles.

REFERENCES

Zarubezhnaia Aziia: Fizicheskaia geografiia. Moscow, 1956.
Riabchikov, A. M. Priroda Indii. Moscow, 1950.

A. M. RIABCHIKOV and L. I. KURAKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Some of this lost drainage may have transported some Diamonds towards Pakistan side removed from the Deccan Plateau. Detailed research is needed to find some substance to this geological picture drawn by geologists.
Bringing together 200 works, this show examines the heritage of the highly cultured Muslim kingdoms of southern India's Deccan Plateau. Pictured is a fancy light pink diamond that belonged to Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal Emperor of India.
In chapters 2 through 4 Dhere tries to peer further into the past by tracing iconographic patterns in temples across the Deccan Plateau and sifting through layers of mythology, ultimately to argue that Vitthal (along with Venkateg of Tirumala) originally emerged from the folk traditions of pastoralists in the southern Deccan.
An alternative to Chennai is Hyderabad, a city rich with tradition and history, located in Southern India on the banks of the Musi River and on the Deccan Plateau. The city is split into Central, North, South, East and West Zones -- all containing different historical sites, entertainment and dining options and authentic shopping experiences.
2 -- Anamit Sen drove a Ford Fiesta around the Deccan Plateau from Gurgaon to Gurgaon via Gwalior, Jhansi, Shivpuri, and Ranthambhore.
Redgram is the major pulse crop grown in Zaheerabad region of Deccan Plateau to an extent of 50,000 ha.
Characteristically, heulandite crystals from Sambava show the {011} form very well developed (much more so than in, for instance, specimens from the Deccan Plateau of India).
One theory is that they were killed off by a series of volcanic eruptions around what is now the Deccan Plateau in central India.
As I return home to my modest roots in the parched and panting Deccan Plateau, I am reminded of the book and its tribute to monsoon, the season of rains and revival that arrives in June amid great excitement and anticipation.
Some specific topics covered include ecomaterials imperatives in developed and newly industrialized nations, constructed wetlands for the treatment of highway runoff, ecosystem service payments to participating landowners, factors affecting deforestation in India's Deccan Plateau, and the fate of pesticides in the environment.
"Deccan" is thought to refer to the Deccan plateau, which spreads across central and southern India but it is unclear whether the name means the terrorists are from south India.