Decomposition Reactions

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Decomposition Reactions

 

chemical reactions in which two or more substances are formed from a single substance. For example, mercuric oxide decomposes into mercury and oxygen upon heating: 2HgO = 2Hg + O2; silver chloride decomposes to yield silver and chlorine upon exposure to light: 2AgCl = 2Ag + Cl2. An industrially important decomposition reaction is the pyrolysis of many hydrocarbons and their derivatives.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Recently, in the literature, loss drying and thermogravimetric methods have not been recommended for the drying of foods containing high sugars contents due to the release of volatiles from decomposition reactions together with the water contained in the sample.
Because the oxygen balance (OB percent; vide infra) for nitroboroxine is less than zero percent, there are two possible decomposition reactions depending on how the oxygen rearranges.
Generally, catalysts are used in order to accelerate the decomposition reactions. The applied catalysts in polyurethane recycling include bases like amines, hydroxides, alkoxides, and Lewis acids, leading to different extension in secondary reaction.
Compared with the direct decomposition reactions, the conversion of more nitrogen-containing species should result from the attack of some radicals (H and aliphatic radicals, etc.), forming nitrile and amino species at lower pyrolysis temperatures.
(ii) Isomerization and decomposition reactions occur at higher temperatures; C[O.sub.2] and CO can be released at this stage.
In general, phase transitions, dehydration, reduction, and decomposition reactions produce endothermic effects, whereas crystallization, oxidations, and some decomposition reactions produce exothermic effects [12].
This volume details tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of lipids (focusing on animal systems), explaining the mechanism of decomposition reactions related to lipid structures.
The crystalline size of the Ni after reduction, in case of pure Ni based catalysts, was linked significantly to the catalytic activity of these catalysts for CH4 decomposition reactions. Moreover, the highest carbon as well as H2 yields was reported over the crystalline size of around 10.8 nm while relatively lower yields were reported in case of crystalline size of 20 nm and further increase in crystalline size to about 24 nm showed very low activity while crystalline size of 26 nm led to total deactivation.
The apparent activation energy decreases with the decrease of particle size, which is consistent with the results of the reaction of the nanoparticles in solutions [15-17], the thermal decomposition reactions of the nanoparticles [19-22], and the reduction reactions of the nanoparticles [18, 23].
High temperature values, typically above 573 K, cause decomposition reactions of esters formed (DEMIRBAS, 2007; IMAHARA et al., 2008; KASIM et al., 2009; VIEITEZ et al., 2009) and can favor backward reaction of glycerol (AIMARETTI et al., 2009; ANITESCU et al., 2008) with products of reaction and may cause product degradation, thus decreasing the production of fatty acid esters.