The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



chemical compounds that react vigorously with toxic gases and convert them to nontoxic compounds.

The variety of toxic substances has given rise to decontaminants of a variety of chemical properties. Water may be considered a decontaminating agent, decomposing toxic materials at various rates (fastest and most completely, by boiling). It is used only for decontaminating clothing and in certain antigas equipment. Decontaminants with oxidizingchlorinating action (calcium or sodium salts of hypochlorous acid, the hypochlorites, and various chloramines) are more effective. Under ordinary conditions aqueous solutions and hypochlorite suspensions oxidize mustard gas and decompose toxic organophosphorous compounds, converting them to nontoxic products. The most readily available is calcium hypochlorite, or chlorinated lime. It is used dry or in aqueous suspension to decontaminate roads or terrain. Aqueous suspensions can also be used to decontaminate buildings and transportation facilities. Hypochlorites are not effective for decontamination at temperatures near 0°C; solutions of chloramines (for example, chloramine B) in organic solvents, such as alcohol or dichloroethane, are used instead. Chloramines are also used to prepare gas casualty first aid kits and for the decontamination of war materiel and terrain. Chloramines chlorinate mustard gas to nontoxic products. However, these decontaminants are not satisfactory for all toxic organophosphorous gases. For example, while they are good decontamints for substances of the V-gas type, they are useless for sarin and soman. Hence, use is made not only of oxidizing-chlorinating decontaminants but also of alkaline agents (caustic alkalies, sodium carbonate, and ammonia). Decontaminants based on certain sodium alkoxides and amines (DS-2, USA) are active against all types of toxic gases. Their decontaminating action is based on the dehydrochlorination of mustard gas and the alcoholysis of toxic organophosphorous gases.

Various organic solvents (motor fuels, alcohols) and detergent solutions may be included among the decontaminants. However, their use only offers physical decontamination (removal of the toxic material through solution or emulsification), which is always incomplete and, in a number of cases, inadequate.


Aleksandrov, V. N. Otravliaiushchie vestchestva. Moscow, 1969.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(12,21) Disinfectants have been extensively used for centuries in many environments including homes, hospitals, farms and food industry as decontaminants. In addition, they have been used on surfaces following slaughter to prevent the dissemination of microorganism and cross-contamination from foodborne pathogens.
After adjusting for estimated co-exposures, including crude oil and other chemical decontaminants, the researchers found that workers with potential exposures to either EC9527A or EC9500A were more likely to report that they experienced certain systems during the cleanup.
Due to diversity of the decontaminants in chemical structure, composition and mode of action, solutions were not compared on the basis of their absolute concentration.
In addition, medicines and chlorine-based decontaminants were also stored there.
By understanding the mechanics of decontamination, CBRN Soldiers gain insight into the function of CBRN equipment and decontaminants. In turn, this knowledge gives CBRN Soldiers perspective on how to advance with the resources that they have and not be limited by those that they do not.
A major problem in the food industry is the resistance of bacterial population to antibiotics including tetracycline, beta-lactam antibiotics, and sulphamide as well as biocides (e.g., disinfectants, food and feed preservatives, or decontaminants) because of poor sanitation of surfaces or materials that come in contact with food directly or indirectly.
Neither locals nor pseudo-rescuers have even asked for medicines, antidotes, decontaminants," Maj.
Because the dyes used maintain their photophysical properties in the polymer matrix of SSO for years, these doped hybrid materials could be used as decontaminants of recreational and drinking waters, since the dyes included in the matrix induce the oxidation of organic pollutants through the photosensitized generation of singlet oxygen.
Rapidly projecting these droplets in the form of a dense and turbulent mist, the system is capable of delivering CBRN decontaminants to all non-line of sight surfaces.
coli, Streptococci and Klebsiella cause most episodes of SBP and MNB in patients who are not receiving selective intestinal decontaminants.
A decontaminant agent should eliminate microorganisms and, at the same time, not negatively affect the development of the explant and a variety of decontaminants can be used, such as ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, mercuric chloride, silver nitrate and even antibiotics (YILDIZ & ER, 2002; RIBEIRO & TEIXEIRA, 2008).