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a pleasant sensation associated with the need for food; also, a physiological mechanism regulating the intake of food substances into the organism. After long deprivation of food, appetite becomes the sensation of hunger.

Appetite is closely related to the activity of the feeding center, primarily those parts of the feeding center located in the hypothalamus and in the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres. Appetite is determined by information coming to the feeding center about nutritive conditions, the intake and assimilation of food, and the consumption of food reserves. Appetite is not caused by the exhaustion of the organism’s food reserves; rather, appetite gives warning beforehand of the exhaustion of food reserves, so that the many stimuli that make up the appetite can change their signals in accordance with a change in the dietary regimen. Stimulation of the appetite depends on the amount of products of intermediary metabolism in the blood, the level of assimilation of these products by the cells, the amount of water in the tissues, the condition of the fat reserves, the contraction of the empty stomach, the lowering of body temperature, and the many external stimuli associated with conditioned reflex activity (the appearance and odor of food, habitual surroundings, and others). Inhibition of the appetite results from eating, distension of the walls of the stomach by food, absorption and assimilation of the products of digestion, and change in the hormonal balance.

General appetite, that is, appetite for any food, is distinguished from specialized or selective forms of appetite which reflect the organism’s need for proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral substances, and vitamins. Appetite makes possible the regulation of the need for specific foods in quantities required by the organism. It also promotes the digestion and assimilation of food by stimulating the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. A good appetite is often a sign of physical and mental well-being. Disorders of the appetite are symptomatic of many diseases. A decrease in appetite (anorexia), a pathological increase in appetite (bulimia), or perverted appetite may be found in cases of brain tumors, many nervous and psychological disorders, diseases of the digestive tract, avitaminosis, and endocrine diseases. Normalization of appetite depends on treatment of the basic disease and observance of the proper dietary regimen.


Anokhin, P. K. “Uzlovye voprosy ν izuchenii vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti.” In Problemy vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti. Moscow, 1949.
Ugolev, A. M., and V. G. Kassil’. “Fiziologiia appetita.” Uspekhi sovremennoi biologii, 1961, vol. 51, issue 3.
Ugolev, A. M., and V.G. Kassil’. “Pishchevoe povedenie i reguliat-siia gomeostaza.” In Slozhnye formy povedeniia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Chernigovskii, V. N. Znachenie interotseptivnoi signalizatsii ν pishchevom povedenii zhivotnykh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.


References in periodicals archive ?
Overall, the most common adverse events were diarrhea, nausea, cough, common cold (nasopharyngitis), bronchitis, difficult or labored breathing (dyspnea), IPF disease progression, decreased appetite, weight decreased and vomiting.
Children aged 6 to 12: decreased appetite, insomnia, upper abdominal
Usually, a review is done by checking the body weight, diet history, duration of the decreased appetite, performing a blood test or it could be any other test, such as, an endoscopy or thyroid function tests, to rule out an underlying disease and finding out if there's a co- existence of more than one co- morbidity," informs Dr Sharma.
Heroin can cause lowered heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate, nausea, drowsiness, poor concentration, lowered body temperature, decreased appetite and decreased sexual drive.
Depression was measured by an index based on the presence of four symptoms: sleep disturbance, decreased interest in activities, low self-esteem and decreased appetite.
Other commonly reported adverse events include arrhythmia, palpitations, tachycardia, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, decreased appetite, reduced weight gain during prolonged use, arthralgia, changes in blood pressure and heart rate, dizziness, drowsiness, dyskinesia, headache, hyperactivity, abnormal behaviour, aggression, agitation, anorexia, anxiety, depression, irritability, alopecia, pruritus, rash, and urticaria.
Another issue is whether the mice lost weight simply due to a decreased appetite, or whether they were made to feel sick.
This could involve increased or decreased appetite "and often an appetite for different kinds of foods--often very sugary foods--and changes in sleep that, in turn, affect changes in appetite and weight," she said.
Symptoms include malaise, weakness, decreased appetite, weight loss, and a sensory peripheral neuropathy that progresses to glove and stocking anesthesia (Ramaike 2003).
Geriatric "failure to thrive" (FTT) is characterized by a gradual decline in physical and/or cognitive function, usually accompanied by decreased appetite, weight loss, and social withdrawal.
Depression may be characterised by having a lack of motivation, difficulty undertaking tasks, short attention span, decreased appetite, crying spells, difficulty in getting to sleep or sleeping too much, and in the more severe cases thoughts of self-harm.
Not gaining enough weight or actually losing weight during pregnancy is a potential risk for HIV-infected women because of opportunistic infections, decreased appetite, and hormonal changes.