a device for detecting flaws in articles made from various metallic and nonmetallic materials by methods of nondestructive testing. Defectoscopes of several types, such as magnetic, X-ray, ultrasonic, induction, and capillary varieties, are in use.
Defectoscopes may be designed as portable and laboratory instruments or as stationary installations. Portable defectoscopes usually incorporate a very simple flaw-detection indicator (an instrument with a pointer or an optical or acoustical signaling device). Laboratory defectoscopes are more sensitive and are often equipped with an oscilloscope or digital indicators. In stationary defectoscopes, which are the most versatile, provision is usually made for automatic recording of the readings and for an objective evaluation of the recorded data. Some defectoscopes make possible the inspection of articles moving at considerable speeds (for example, pipe in the process of rolling), or the defectoscope itself can move at a great speed in relation to the article (for example, defectoscopes mounted on cars or carriages and moving over rails). Defectoscopes designed for quality control of articles heated to a high temperature also exist.
D. S. SHRAIBER