neoplasm

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neoplasm

or

tumor,

tissue composed of cells that grow in an abnormal way. Normal tissue is growth-limited, i.e., cell reproduction is equal to cell death. Feedback controls limit cell division after a certain number of cells have developed, allowing for tissue repair but not expansion. Tumor cells are less responsive to these restraints and can proliferate to the point where they disrupt tissue architecture, distort the flow of nutrients, and otherwise do damage.

Tumors may be benign or malignant. Benign tumors remain localized as a discrete mass. They may differ appreciably from normal tissue in structure and excessive growth of cells, but are rarely fatal. However, even benign tumors may grow large enough to interfere with normal function. Some benign uterine tumors, which can weigh as much as 50 lb (22.7 kg), displace adjacent organs, causing digestive and reproductive disorders. Benign tumors are usually treated by complete surgical removal. Cells of malignant tumors, i.e., cancerscancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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, have characteristics that differ from normal cells in other ways beside cell proliferation. For example, they may be deficient in some specialized functions of the tissues where they originate. Malignant cells are invasive, i.e., they infiltrate surrounding normal tissue; later, malignant cells metastasize, i.e., spread via blood and the lymph system to other sites.

Both benign and malignant tumors are classified according to the type of tissue in which they are found. For example, fibromas are neoplasms of fibrous connective tissue, and melanomas are abnormal growths of pigment (melanin) cells. Malignant tumors originating from epithelial tissue, e.g., in skin, bronchi, and stomach, are termed carcinomas. Malignancies of epithelial glandular tissue such as are found in the breast, prostate, and colon, are known as adenocarcinomas. Malignant growths of connective tissue, e.g., muscle, cartilage, lymph tissue, and bone, are called sarcomas. Lymphomas and leukemiasleukemia
, cancerous disorder of the blood-forming tissues (bone marrow, lymphatics, liver, spleen) characterized by excessive production of immature or mature leukocytes (white blood cells; see blood) and consequently a crowding-out of red blood cells and platelets.
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 are malignancies arising among the white blood cells. A system has been devised to classify malignant tissue according to the degree of malignancy, from grade 1, barely malignant, to grade 4, highly malignant. In practice it is not always possible to determine the degree of malignancy, and it may be difficult even to determine whether particular tumor tissue is benign or malignant.

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neoplasm

[′nē·ə‚plaz·əm]
(medicine)
An aberrant new growth of abnormal cells or tissues; a tumor.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
A report based on DNA sequencing indicated same results of reasonable degree of differentiation between Jordan goat breeds (Al- Atiyat et al., 2012).
Hypothesis 2: The degree of differentiation in LMX shown by work teams at time 1 will moderate the positive relationship between the mean quality of LMX in teams at time 1 and teams' innovation climate at time 2, so that the lower the differentiation, the stronger this relationship will be.
These factors include histologic grade, degree of differentiation, depth of invasion, tumor thickness, perineural perivascular invasion, growth pattern, and epidemiologic factors such as age, sex, race, and alcohol and tobacco use.
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For advertisers, these large and en- gaged audiences also offer a degree of differentiation.
Or rather: should we expect that the two firms will certainly place themselves in the central position, where a great density is observed, or, however, exists a possibility that a certain degree of differentiation inside this market is maintained?
Not only are per capita amongst the highest in the region but significant competition in supply has encouraged companies to fostered a climate of innovation in an effort to achieve some degree of differentiation.
It's a well-made beer with a nice degree of differentiation. We have also received samples of MC's Batch 19.
The degree of differentiation depends on the degree of commonality, i.e., s = s{[??]).
In the eyes with PRD, the age at enucleation seemed to reflect the degree of differentiation of the associated retinoblastoma.
It confirms that a "fair degree of differentiation" will have to apply between member states in terms of their starting conditions, but adds that the coordinated strategy for coping with the crisis must be based on budgetary consolidation.
"The current way of testing people, you have to have a lab that runs the test nearby." Mitchell says there are some "dipstick" tests on the market, but they "do not have the degree of differentiation of our test."