Deir el Bahri

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Deir el Bahri

 

a complex of ancient buildings near the city of Thebes in Egypt. In 1881 the French Egyptologist G. Maspero discovered a hiding place here with the mummies of some of the pharaohs of the New Kingdom. Systematic excavations were conducted from 1893 to 1898 and from 1903 to 1908 (E. Navil, Switzerland), from 1911 to 1931, with interruptions (Metropolitan Museum of Art, USA), and from 1961 to 1966 (K. Michałowski, Poland).

The excavations uncovered the remains of two mortuary temples partially carved into the cliffs. One was the temple of Pharaoh Mentuhotep I (21st century B.C.), which was enclosed by a colonnade and topped with a pyramid. The other was the mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut (designed by Senenmut, beginning of the 15th century B.C.). Hatshepsut’s temple was constructed on three terraces with proto-Doric porticoes. The terraces were joined by ramps. In the porticoes, in the hypostyle located at the foot of the cliffs, and in the sanctuaries adjoining the hypostyle, numerous sculptures were found, including statues of Queen Hatshepsut, as well as reliefs depicting the expedition to the country of Punt and other scenes. Deir el Bahri is also the site of the ensemble of the mortuary temple of Thutmose III (15th century B.C.). Many inscriptions on plates, graffiti, and papyri have been found there.

REFERENCES

Mat’e, M. E. Iskusstvo-Drevnego Egipta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1961.
Winlock, H. E. Excavations at Deir el Bahri 1911–1931. New York, 1942.
Leclant, J. “Fouilles et travaux en Egypte et au Soudan.” Orientalia, Nova series, 1964–67, no. 33–36.

R. I. RUBINSHTEIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The earliest surviving rendition of the divine birth clearly comes from Hatshepsut's memorial temple at Deir el-Bahri.
Hatshepsut and her ka at Deir el-Bahri, and was likely unique to each pharaoh (20).
The best-known piece in this category would be Hatshepsut's Temple at Deir el-Bahri, familiar to anyone who enrolls in the survey of the history of early art.
Hatshepsut was one of the most prolific builder pharaohs of ancient Egypt, commissioning hundreds of construction projects; however the masterpiece of Hatshepsut's building projects was her mortuary temple complex at Deir el-Bahri, which is considered to be among the great buildings of the ancient world, it was designed and implemented by Senemut on a site on the West Bank of the Nile River near the entrance to the Valley of the Kings.
Deir el-Bahri, the modern name for the site of Hatshepsut's funerary complex, is on the west bank (and not the east bank) of the Nile, opposite the important ancient site of Waset (which the Greeks called 'Thebes', and which modern Egyptians call 'Luxor').
Among them are Hatshepsut's terraced temple at Deir el-Bahri and Rameses II's Ramesseum.
Separate entries are provided for each of the most important sites, covering monuments as diverse as the Step pyramid of Djoser (the world's first significant stone building), the tombs of the Valley of the Kings, Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri and the great Ptolemaic temples that line the Upper Nile.
In the New Kingdom room, the lucky visitor may get to see the beautiful speos (cave temple) of Hathor from Deir el-Bahri, built by Thutmose III, and a statue of the cow goddess from the same site dedicated by his son Amenhotep II, who suckles at Hathor's udder.
Hatshepsut, the Egyptian Queen was an exception by supervising the construction of the mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, which is the only example of a large-scale stone architectural monument built by a woman ruler.
The tomb of Senenmut, at Deir el-Bahri, includes astral symbolism normally reserved for pharaohs on the ceiling of the rock-cut sepulcher of Queen Hatshepsut's architect and chief counselor.
Deir el-Bahri was Hatshepsut's mortuary temple where she could be worshipped after her death.
The adventure is recorded on the walls of the queen's masterpiece, the great temple in the cliffs of Deir el-Bahri in western Thebes, the modern Luxor.