Eldredge further examined factors such as the ivory trade at Delagoa Bay and its role in contributing to political amalgamation and increased inequalities on the basis of wealth accumulation.
A related point often raised is that only those societies connected to the long-distance trade network have evidence for political centralisation in the form of Level-5 and 6 capitals (settlements with the highest number of court levels), and that it was only when the trade arrived at Delagoa Bay that the polities of the northern Nguni became centralised.
The Trade of Delagoa Bay as a Factor in Nguni politics 1750-1835', in L.
The difaqane is used to allude to events on the interior Highveld, and the mfecane to events originating between Delagoa Bay and the Thukela River involving the northern Nguni, specifically the Ndwandwe, Swazi and Zulu.
Viljoen escaped across the Olifants River and ultimately to the high veldt, south of the Delagoa Bay
Railway, where the more open terrain allowed greater manoeuvrability.
Impossible, she asserts, since slave exports through Delagoa Bay
were minimal prior to 1823, at least five years after the emergence of a Zulu state.
But the primary culprit, according to Cobbing, was an escalation in slaving activity, by Portuguese at Delagoa Bay (Maputo) to the east, and, further north, mounted Griquas from the west.
Stories of Zulu raids beyond Delagoa Bay, the Cape Colony border (a thousand kilometres to the south), and the Vaal are certainly fictitious.
The winner, Holden Eagle, has twice finished a creditable runner-up since, fourth-placed Newport Arch won next time out, the fifth Cloudy Start was successful last week, while the sixth and eighth respectively, Delagoa Bay
and Hallstatt, have both subsequently performed well in narrow defeat.
However, the island's importance in the global economy had gone for good and when East Africa once again became central to the concerns of the developed world it was to be Mombasa and Delagoa Bay, not Mozambique Island, that were to grow into modern cities.
Luso-African mestizos were also to be found along the coast from Delagoa Bay to Mombasa.