demiurge

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demiurge

(dĕm`ēûrj') [Gr.,=workman, craftsman], name given by Plato in a mythological passage in the Timaeus to the creator God. In GnosticismGnosticism
, dualistic religious and philosophical movement of the late Hellenistic and early Christian eras. The term designates a wide assortment of sects, numerous by the 2d cent. A.D.
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 the Demiurge, creator of the material world, was not God but the Archon, or chief of the lowest order of spirits or aeons. According to the Gnostics, the Demiurge was able to endow man only with psyche (sensuous soul)—the pneuma (rational soul) having been added by God. The Gnostics identified the Demiurge with the Jehovah of the Hebrews. In philosophy the term is used to denote a divinity who is the builder of the universe rather than its creator.

Demiurge

 

the term denoting, in philosophy, the creator of any source; and in theology, god, or the creator of the world. In ancient Greece its chief meaning was social: demiourgoi were the craftmen and merchants in the population, as opposed to the landowning elite (eupatridae), the farmers (geomoroi), and the people involved in free professions, such as doctors, poets, and singers.

References in periodicals archive ?
Die gnostischen Unterscheidung zwischen dem "Urgrund" des Alls und dem Demiurg hat also viele Parallelen im Judentum (bei den Minim im Talmud, bei den Samaritanern, bei Philo), aber hier gibt es auch zwei gro[ss]e Unterschiede zwischen der Gnosis und dem Judentum: 1) "der kleine Jahwe" wird von den Minim nicht Gott entgegengesetzt, wie es spater Marcion, der Autor des Apokryphon des Johannes und auch Valentin taten (Quispel 1981:420).
Obwohl der Antagonismus zwischen Gott und dem Demiurg im Judentum (auch im hellenistischen Judentum) nicht nachweisbar ist, kann man dennoch behauptet, dass die Vorbedingungen dazu im Judentum vorhanden sind.
Teooriale gnoosise juudi paritolust on esitatud ka palju vastuvaiteid: 1) gnoosis ei ole juutlusest tuletatav, kuna gnoosise ja juutluse alusprintsiibid on teineteisega teravas vastuolus: juutluse range monoteism ja maailma (st loodut) jaatav hoiak on vastuolus gnostilise dualismi ja antikosmilise hoiakuga (192); 2) juudi paritoluga aines on gnoosises pohjalikult umber toodeldud ja omandanud mife ainult uue, vaid kohati lausa vastupidise tahenduse, kui tal on juutluses: Looja-Jumalast on saanud kuri demiurg, pattulangusest positiivne ondsussundmus jne (193); 3) gnostilises kirjanduses esineb tugev antijuutlik hoiak: Jahve on kuri jumalus, juutluse seitse peainglit on demoniseeritud, juute juhitakse kurjade kosmiliste joudude poolt jne.
29) ja Uus Testament (Hb, 11, 10), kusjuures Philonil ja Heebrea kirjas ei ole demiurg kuri olend.