"Athens," wrote John Adams in 1787, was never a place of "[s]obriety, abstinence, and severity." Instead, "from the first to the last moment of her democratical
constitution, levity, gayety, inconstancy, dissipation, intemperance, debauchery, and a dissolution of manners, were the prevailing character of the whole nation." (9)
If public morals is imposed from the bottom to the top, being a democratical
one, the moral order induced by the understanding of dignity as an absolute concept is imposed from the top to the bottom, raising the issue of establishment of a sole moral truth, thus, the risks of drifting to totalitarianism.
It is true, in the Case of human Laws and Constitutions a Legislator may be constituted by the Persons, who are to be afterwards (i) obliged by that authority that he himself either wholly, or at least as one of j Community transfers to that Person, as these (k) Persons to whom this Nomothetical Power is thus Transacted; (l) And therefore if we should supose the new erection either of a (m) Kingly or Aristocratical or Democratical
Government, by the paction n or stipulation of any Society or Community of Men; by this paction if I am one of that Community I do together with the rest transfer to this Government a Power to oblige me by the Laws which such o Governors shall make.
"I am making an appeal to them that they should make their demands peacefully in a democratical
way," he said.
War weariness in the mother country surely would lead to "a change in public or elite opinion over immediate policy issues," Adams thought, beginning with recognition of American independence; perhaps it might lead to "full-scale regime change." The "tide of public opinion" everywhere "was becoming sympathetic to (what Adams called) 'democratical
principles.'" When the States-General recognized American independence in April 1782, Adams exulted in his great triumph.
Under a democratical
government, the citizens exercise the powers of sovereignty; and those powers will be first abused and afterwards lost if they are committed to an unwieldy multitude--Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Abridged Edition (23)
Of all the innumerable speculators who have offered their suggcstions on Indian politics, not a single one, as far as I know, however democratical
his opinions may be, has ever maintained the possibility of giving, at the present time, such institutions to India.
[John] Robinson (196)) to be democratical
, though the people choose their owne officers and rulers.
They stand in contrast, certainly, to the concluding chapter in which the limits of the 'democratical
spirit' of the Volunteers, revealed by their failure to achieve parliamentary reform, are clearly elucidated.
(19) The Christian faith has given democracy some of its most powerful spiritual affirmations: the sanctity and equality of the individual, even the least, the notion of the free working of the Holy Spirit in open and respectful dialogue, the idea of covenant that Roger Williams renamed "democratical
." (20) It is likely that the greatest self-governing voluntary association in Western history is the Christian church.
resulting from a Balance of three powers, the Monarchical, Aristocratical, and Democratical
Of those who would govern, it boldly asks the question that Cicero posed to Caesar and Marc Antony and that the English "Democratical
Gentlemen" directed to Charles I in 1642: "Do you call servitude peace?" (Skinner and van Gelderen 2002 2.10-11 [Skinner]).