The biomarker they identified, a steroid compound named 26-methylstigmastane (26-mes), has a unique structure that is currently only known to be synthesized by certain species of modern sponges called demosponges
The finding of the additional and novel 26-mes ancient biomarker, which is unique to demosponges
, adds extra confidence that both compounds are fossil biomolecules produced by demosponges
on an ancient sea floor, researchers said.
The contractile sponge epithelium sensu lato: Body contraction of the demosponge
Tethya wilhelma is mediated by the pinacoderm.
This result is similar to GPCR transcription patterns that have been reported for the demosponge
Amphimedon queenslandica, in which many GPCRs were well expressed in pelagic larvae and then downregulated in benthic juveniles (Conaco et al., 2012).
Schroder H-C, Perovic-Ottstadt S, Rothenberger M, Wiens M, Schwertner H, Batel R, Korzhev M, Muller IM, Muller WEG (2004) Silica transport in the demosponge
Suberites domuncula: fluorescence emission analysis using the PDMPO probe and cloning of a potential transporter.
It is also likely that shell protrusions (on the posterior side), either by attachment of demosponge
or by other epibionts, could disturb the valve opening and impede burrowing, so limiting food capture by the mollusc.
The interaction of dermal cells with foreign particles suggests a direct role for these same cells in the movement, internalization, and orientation of sand grains, as described in the keratose demosponge
Dysidea etheriade Laubenfels, 1936 (Teragawa, 1986a, b).
and sea anemone fibrillar collagen diversity reveals the early emergence of A/C clades and the maintenance of the modular structure of Type V/XI collagens from sponge to human.
Using the model of the demosponge
species Suberites domuncula Olivi, 1792, which expresses aquaporin, cDNA was cloned and the protein was heterologously expressed.
The first integrins to be cloned from early-diverging metazoans were an a integrin subunit from the demosponge
Geodia cydonium (Pancer et al., 1997) and [beta] integrin subunits from the demosponge
Ophlitaspongia tenuis and the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora (Brower et al., 1997).