Denaturalization


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Denaturalization

 

in economics, the restoration of commodity-money relationships in an economy. Under socialism it may cover relations among sectors of the national economy, between the state and enterprises, and between the state and the population.

In the USSR an extensive denaturalization of economic relations was carried out during the transition to the New Economic Policy (NEP). The methods of “war communism,” which were based on naturalization of economic relations (including maximum centralization of national economic management, abolition of trade and its replacement by organized state distribution of the main industrial and food products according to social class affiliation, and institution of a rationing system for supply to the population), were forced and temporary. Under peacetime conditions they were incompatible with economic growth. Beginning in 1921 measures were carried out to develop commodity-money relations, employ material incentives, and introduce profit-and-loss accountability. The substitution of a tax in kind for the surplus-appropriation system made it possible to straighten out commodity relations between industry and agriculture. State enterprises were taken off budget financing and switched to the profit-and-loss accountability system, and in this way commodity-money relations among enterprises and between enterprises and the state were restored. Monetary taxes were gradually restored. In 1924 taxes in kind were completely replaced by monetary taxes. Steps were taken to put monetary circulation in order, restore credit relations, and ensure that state budgets were carried out without deficit.

In the 1950’s certain measures aimed at partial denaturalization were taken. For example, in connection with the reorganization of the machine and tractor stations in 1958, deliveries in kind were abolished; the transition was made to a monetary form of payment for labor at kolkhozes.

T. V. GUIDA

References in periodicals archive ?
In addition to formal denaturalization, citizenship status may be eviscerated, leaving behind a citizenship that is hollowed of content but formally intact.
253 (1967): Involuntary denaturalization for living abroad in country of birth is unconstitutional
17) My thinking is informed by Aaron Fox's discussion of performative naturalization and poetic denaturalization, the dyad of feelingful signification and resignification that makes music such a fertile site for the production of culture and social relations.
Heterosexuality can augment its hegemony through its denaturalization, as when we see denaturalizing parodies that reidealize heterosexual norms without calling them into question" (231).
In the fourth chapter the long tradition of obstructing emigration and denaturalization is explored: from runaway serfs of the eighteenth century and the unique system of internal passports, to the elimination of "colonists" as a separate status in the late nineteenth century and "an eternal ban on return" for emigrants.
My analysis suggests that certain signifiers or linguistic expressions like reflexivity, denaturalization, anti-performativity, and even critical management, work better, as names that substitute an absent fullness of a dislocated community.
government to issue the certificate of denaturalization which has been recognized as a "natural and inherent right" by the U.
Tattoo, Torture, Mutilation and Adornment: The Denaturalization of the Body in Culture and Text.
According to Somero (1995) and Denlinger and Yocum (1998), the immediate heat damage endured by the insects when subjected to high non-lethal temperatures is produced by dehydration and denaturalization of proteins and enzymes and, as a consequence, survival, fecundity, or viability of the offspring is reduced.
Linda Hutcheon (1997) discussed in this view the negation and denaturalization of the borders between the visual arts and the arts of the word, bringing together two kinds of philosophical translation of the postmodern profile of the tourist: coincidence within urbanity, vocable and image doubled, as in Owens' (1992) perspective, by the reflection on the feminine body as consequence of the crisis of the cultural authority, a specific challenge concerning both the representation and the manners of interaction.