Avilov, Triterpene glycosides from holothurians of an order Dendrochirotida
Since these contributions, saponins have been isolated from numerous species of Aspidochirotida and Dendrochirotida and also from sea stars (Mackie and Turner, 1970; Kitagawa and Kobayashi, 1977; Demeyer et al, 2014).
Hemolytic activities of triterpene glycosides from the holothurian order Dendrochirotida: some trends in the evolution of this group of toxins.
From Pakistan total 11 genera and 14 species of sea cucumbers have been recorded belonging to the orders Aspidochirotida and Dendrochirotida
to which most of the commercial species belong.
All currently known fissiparous species of holothurians belong to two orders: Aspidochirotida and Dendrochirotida
. Asexual reproduction was first described in dendrochirotids.
There is a huge diversity of species of sea cucumbers (66 species) that are harvested commercially and traded around the world, with the majority of these species belonging to the order Aspidochirotida, and only a few to the order Dendrochirotida
(Purcell et al.
Stolus kilberti, a new species from the east coast of South Africa (Echinodermata: Ho lothuroidea: Dendrochirotida
) with a key to the genus Stolus Selenka.
Phylum Echinodermata Klein, 1734 (ex Bruguiere, 1789) Clase Holothuroidea Blainville, 1834 Orden Dendrochirotida
Grube, 1840 Familia Cucumariidae Ludwig, 1894
Echinodermata: Arbacia dufresnei (Blainville, 1825)(*); Asterina sterifer (Mobius, 1859)(*); Dendrochirotida
species indet.(4), Ophioplocus januarii (Lutken, 1856).
Apodida can discard the posterior region of the body (Pearse, 1909; Domantay, 1931; Baugh, 1991), whereas autotomy in the Aspido-chirotida and Dendrochirotida
takes the form of auto-evisceration, which is characterized by the extrusion of internal organs through a rupture in the body wall (Emson and Wilkie, 1980; Byrne, 1985, 1986; Dolmatov, 1996, 2009).
After the first cleavage, the fixing processes near the cleavage furrow can be as long as 60 [micro]m This rivals the length of the acrosomes of the sea cucumber Dendrochirotida
thyone (Tilney and Inoue, 1982)--a well-known example of the long actin fibers in gametes.
Evidence for the tubule recruitment model was limited to holothurians of the orders Aspidochirotida and Dendrochirotida
. Comparative information on oogenesis in other holothurian orders was considered too limited to assess the model's general applicability (Smiley, 1988).