Dennis Gabor


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Gabor, Dennis,

1900–1979, Hungarian-born British physicist, Ph.D. Berlin Institute of Technology 1927. Gabor was a researcher with the Thomson-Houston Company, England, from 1934 to 1949 and a professor at the Univ. of London from 1949 until his retirement in 1967. He was awarded the 1971 Nobel prize in Physics for his invention and development of holographyholography
, method of reproducing a three-dimensional image of an object by means of light wave patterns recorded on a photographic plate or film. Holography is sometimes called lensless photography because no lenses are used to form the image.
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, a lensless three-dimensional photography technique. His invention was accidental—he stumbled upon it while working to improve the electron microscope in the 1940s—and had little impact at the time because the coherent light source needed to make an image a true hologram did not exist in 1947. Interest in the invention was awakened in the 1960s, when the laserlaser
[acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation], device for the creation, amplification, and transmission of a narrow, intense beam of coherent light. The laser is sometimes referred to as an optical maser.
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, which provided the needed monochromatic light, was invented, enabling holography to become a multimillion-dollar industry.

Gabor, Dennis

 

Born June 5, 1900, in Budapest. Physicist and founder of holography. Member of the British Royal Society (1956). Honorary member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1964).

Gábor graduated from the Technical University of Budapest and the Higher Technical School in Berlin. From 1927 to 1933 he worked in Germany, and in 1934 he emigrated to Great Britain. From 1949 to 1967 he taught at the University of London. (He became a professor there in 1958.) In 1967 he became the director of the Stanford laboratory of the Columbia Broadcasting System. Between 1948 and 1951, Gábor developed a general theory of holography and obtained the first holograms. In 1956 he designed the first holo-graphic microscope. Gabor also wrote works on electronics, optics, information theory, and communication theory.

WORKS

The Electron Microscope. London, 1946.
Electron Inventions and Their Impact on Civilization. London, 1959. Inventing the Future. London, 1963.
References in periodicals archive ?
One of the eye-catching holograms (above) which owes its creation to an invention in Rugby by Dennis Gabor (left) who died in 1979.; SHIMMER...
Dennis Gabor was awarded the Physics Nobel Prize in 1971.
An early, and prolific producer of holographic stamps has been Hungary, perhaps because the father of holography, Dennis Gabor, was Hungarian.
At Easter 1947 Dennis Gabor conceived of wavefront reconstruction; in the autumn of that year his patent on this topic was applied for; in August 1948 his paper on microscopy by reconstructed wavefronts, which included the word 'hologram', was presented to the Royal Society, and in September 1948 he gave a demonstration of his new equipment to the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
The Rugby visit will be particularly appropriate as Dennis Gabor was working in Rugby when he invented and then patented holography.
Photonics West also includes an enigmatic Holography Technical Event on the evening of January 22nd, which will mark the 60th anniversary of Dennis Gabor's first papers on holography.
He never sought an award, yet his university (IIT Delhi) gave him its highest honour and SPIE awarded him its Dennis Gabor Award.
According to Dennis Gabor, he first thought of holography on Easter Day 1947.
Claus Cohnen, president of the 3D-Lab in Hamburg, Germany, is planning Holo-World, a major hologram exhibition to tour in 2006/07 in celebration of the 60th anniversary of Dennis Gabor's theory of holography, which he developed in 1947.
Many people in holography have long felt that Dennis Gabor's Nobel Prize for inventing holography should have been shared with Emmett Leith and Yuri Denisyuk, the first the inventor of off-axis transmission holography and the second the inventor of reflection holography.
He was always an appreciated speaker at international conferences and organised several holographic symposia in Hungary, celebrating the memory of Dennis Gabor. Greguss was the President of the Curatorium of the International Dennis Gabor Award of the NOVOFER Foundation, recognising outstanding contributions from young scientists working in holography.
Dr Sean Johnston, Senior Lecturer in Science Studies, points out that the technology has been repeatedly recast, from its Spartan beginnings by Dennis Gabor in 1947, to its revitalisation with lasers during the 1960s, to a boom of popular and artistic interest through the 1980s, to the closure of exhibitions and research groups, and holography's channelling to important commercial applications during the 1 990s.