Dental Caries

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Related to Dental decay: Tooth Cavity, Dental cavities

dental caries

[¦dent·əl ′kar·ēz]
(medicine)

Dental Caries

 

an affection of the solid tissues of the teeth manifested by their gradual destruction (enamel, dentin, cemen-tum) and the formation of cavities.

The causes of dental caries are varied and have not been completely determined. According to the chemical-parasitic theory, it results from the mineral part of the teeth being dissolved by acids formed in the mouth during the breakdown of the carbohydrates in food; the organic portion of the teeth is subsequently decomposed by microbes. Dental caries may also develop without the action of microbes as a result of metabolic disturbances in the dental tissues. Diet is an important factor in the origin of dental caries. Dental caries was induced experimentally by giving animals food containing a large quantity of sugar. In localities where the drinking water is low in fluorine, the incidence of dental caries is particularly high. The individual enzyme peculiarities of the body, diseases, a mother’s diet during pregnancy, improper artificial feeding of infants, and rickets also affect the incidence of dental caries.

Caries generally affects the teeth of the upper jaw, especially the fifth milk and first molar teech. The carious process is usually concentrated near natural depressions on the tooth surface and on the contiguous surfaces in the neck of a tooth (region next to the gum). The disease starts with the formation of a defect in the enamel or neck part of the cementum projecting freely into the mouth. On reaching the dentin, the process spreads wide and deep, forming a carious cavity. Once started, the process does not stop but gradually progresses. The enamel loses its luster and transparency at the site of dental caries, and pigmentation and roughness appear. When the integrity of the enamel is impaired, pain is felt on eating sweet, acid, salty, hot, or cold food. Dental caries is usually chronic. Acute dental caries is generally found in young people, and it is often due to a disturbance of internal secretion.

Treatment consists in restoration of the anatomical structure and function of the tooth by filling it. The procedure involves removal of the soft dentin and formation of a suitable cavity to hold the filling.

Prevention consists in taking action to increase tooth resistance to caries (providing the body with the essential salts, chiefly calcium and phosphorus, and vitamin D) during formation and mineralization of the teeth (from the fourth to fifth month of intrauterine development to age 11 years). After the teeth erupt prevention consists in proper diet and oral hygiene.

REFERENCES

Rukovodstvo po terapevticheskoi stomatologii.Moscow, 1967.
Pilz, W., C. Plathner, and H. Taatz. Grundlagen der Kariologie undEndodontie. Leipzig, 1969.

V. N. ISAEV

References in periodicals archive ?
National Dental Epidemiology Programme for England: oral health survey of five-year-old children 2015 :A report on the prevalence and severity of dental decay. United Kingdom: Public Health England.
In different parts of the world, fluoride is added to drinking water to control dental caries, but studies have shown that topical application of fluoride on teeth in the form of toothpaste is responsible against dental decay [28, 29].
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted to determine whether rates of dental decay between health authorities were significantly different from one another.
Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted using the available covariates to identify important predictors of outcomes such as adverse oral health perceptions, adverse periodontal disease perceptions, dental disease characteristics such as dental decay, and dental decay and periodontal disease.
"Some parents say, 'I don't want my little darling to be traumatised.' The metaphor I give them is, 'I'd much rather have a kid cry with a soft toothbrush than when I have to drill a cavity."' Dental decay often starts with a dull ache that toddlers cannot distinguish from teething.
Committee Chair Christine Chapman AM, said recently that levels of dental decay amongst children in Wales was unacceptably high.
The article concludes that early screening, risk assessment, and preventive programs in WIC, Head Start, and Early Head Start populations hold a great deal of promise for preventing dental decay in high-risk children.
Dental decay is a major problem whenever self-care is difficult, so the have-a-lolly approaches are being hailed by some of the researchers as "simple, effective regimens that will encourage prevention and control of dental disease in nursing home residents and children." That regimen, by the way, is a dose of FDA-approved lollipop administered 10 minutes twice daily for 3 weeks.
Dental decay is a major problem whenever self care is difficult, so the have-a-lolly approaches are being hailed by some of the researchers as "simple, effective regimens that will encourage prevention and control of dental disease in nursing home residents and children." That regimen, by the way, is a dose of FDA-approved lollipop administered 10 minutes twice daily for 3 weeks.
Finally, recognizing that preventive care is the key to eliminating childhood dental decay, the caucus created BEST Oral Health.
Why did Jim discover new dental decay during a dental examination when months prior he had replaced his cravings for soda with tea?