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1. a major subdivision or branch of the administration of a government
2. a branch or subdivision of learning
3. a territorial and administrative division in several countries, such as France



(Russian, departament).

(1) The basic administrative and territorial unit in France (in 1970 there were 95 departments). The organ of self-government in the department is the general council and the departmental commission that it elects. The prefect is the representative of the central government in the department.

(2) In some countries, the name of a government department or ministry, such as the State Department of the United States.

(3) The department in Russia was a subdivision of higher, central, and local institutions and sometimes an independent central institution. Departments existed from the 18th century to the early 20th century. A number of collegiums were divided into departments: the Collegium of Livonian and Estonian Affairs (1739), the Votchina (Patrimonial Estate) Collegium (1762), the collegiums of Justice and Financial Inspection and Auditing (1762 and 1763), and the Collegium of Foreign Affairs (1779). In the Admiralty and Military collegiums (1763 and 1780) departments were part of collegium subdivisions called ekspeditsii. On Dec. 15, 1763, the Senate was divided into six departments each headed by a chief procurator (by the mid-19th century there were 12 departments and in the early 20th century, six). The provincial reform of 1775 divided several local courts into departments.

In the late 18th and early 19th century a number of independent departments arose in Russia: the Department of Udely (Crown Domains), headed by a minister (established in 1797 and from 1826 to 1892 part of the Ministry of the Imperial Court), and the Department of Water Communications (1798-1809), headed by a main director. With the establishment of ministries on Sept. 8, 1802, departments were created within the ministries. In accordance with the General Establishment of Ministries of June 25, 1811, the departments became the main executive agencies of the ministries. A director headed each department, and it consisted of sections whose officials met in general sessions of the department. Some departments, such as the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, acquired great independence within their ministries. From 1810 there were departments in the State Council. Departments were abolished after the October Revolution of 1917.


Eroshkin, N. P. Istoriia gosudarstvennykh uchrezhdenii dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1968. Chapters 5-11.


References in periodicals archive ?
As many as nine officers of Establishment Department were recommended for promotion, four of Information Department, one of Provincial Inspection Team, one of Public Health Engineering Department, three of C and W Department, One of P and D Department, Eight of Environment Department, one of Finance Department, seven of Population Department, ten of Mines Department , one of Industries Department, forty of Agriculture Department, fifty of Elementary and Secondary Education Department, 372 teaching cadre officers of Higher Education Department, 343 doctors of Health Department, one of Zakat Department, two of Labour Department and one officer of Irrigation Department was recommended for promotion.
8 percent of the department -- about the rate they staff fire departments nationally.
In many instances, with insufficient funding for additional positions, police departments have sought alternatives, one being the employment of reserve officers.
In Technical Advice Memorandum (TAM) 200609018, the IRS relied on traditional cost accounting principals to determine whether the costs of a taxpayer's engineering and procurement departments qualified as mixed service costs (MSC) that can be allocated between capitalizable activities and deductible activities under Regs.
Each one of these departments has different penalty schedules and distinct methods to correct the viola tion.
In addition to the big ticket items, we have so many other moving parts--145 departments spanning education, pathology, marketing, food service, architecture and construction, to name a few--that it's like running a small city.
Tax departments continue to shoulder a great deal of responsibility for regulatory reporting.
So, if we begin to think about our budgeting as is done in the chemical industry, we will logically come to the idea of looking at departments on an individual basis (See the illustration accompanying this article).
The project involves various departments at New Jersey City University and the University's laboratory school for students with low incidence disabilities.
The proposed new Department of Homeland Security, when fully operational, will become the most far-reaching of federal departments, with a vast jurisdiction embracing huge swaths of private activity as well as areas of state and local jurisdiction.
The FMS Operations Directorate, Code P75 has two departments, the Aviation Department, Code P751, and the Integrated Country Program Team Department, Code P754.
His blueprint is one that may serve as a recommendation for other internal audit departments seeking leaner operations: