Dephosphorylation

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Dephosphorylation

 

the splitting-off of a phosphoric acid group from a molecule of a compound containing phosphorus. Some unstable organic phosphorus compounds can undergo spontaneous dephosphorylation, but in living organisms dephosphorylation proceeds primarily with the participation of enzymes. Dephosphorylation brought about by kinases (creatine kinase, glucokinase, and so on) leads to the transfer of the phosphoric acid group to other compounds. Dephosphorylation that is catalyzed by phosphorylases (phosphoamidases) results in the formation of free phosphoric acid. The differentiation among the various types of fermentative dephosphorylation is to some extent arbitrary.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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ITIM in CD72 is then tyrosine-phosphorylated by BCR-associated kinases, such as Lyn, and recruits and activates SHP-1, which in turn inactivates BCR signaling by dephosphorylating various signaling molecules.
Fujita, "Identification of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B as the major tyrosine phosphatase activity capable of dephosphorylating and activating c-Src in several human breast cancer cell lines," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Medeiros et al., "The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN4/PTP-MEG1, an enzyme capable of dephosphorylating the TCR ITAMs and regulating NF-[kappa]B, is dispensable for T cell development and/or T cell effector functions," Molecular Immunology, vol.
Consequently, [(PhTe).sub.2] can be used as a tool to study pharmacological agents that could counteract the toxic effect of ditelluride on brain phosphorylating/ dephosphorylating system, for instance, organoselenium compounds with neuroprotective effects [17, 92, 93].
PTP1B was a major molecule in insulin signal transduction [13, 24] and was reported to negatively regulate insulin transduction by dephosphorylating IR and IRS [25].
Octreotide activation of sst2 caused the activation of SHP-1 that rapidly dissociates from the receptor, binds to insulin receptor dephosphorylating the receptor itself and its substrates (i.e., IRS-1 and Shc) and leading to a negative modulation of insulin mitogenic signalling [126].
The active form of CDC25C, a phosphatase that activates Cdc2 by dephosphorylating Tyr15, was significantly increased in cells treated with the combination of paclitaxel and BIBF1120 as demonstrated by a slower-migrating band compared to control or either drug alone (Figure 5).
Inhibitory protein Interaction Drugs against with PP2A inhibitory CIP2A Prevent Bortezomib; PP2A-dependent Erlotinib dephosphorylating of c-Myc PHAPI/pp32/ Direct binding Jacalin [I.sup.PP1A.sub.2] COG112; SET/ Direct binding Apolipoprotein [I.sup.PP2A.sub.2] E-mimetis peptides SETBP1 Form a SETBP1- SET-PP2A complex Inhibitory protein References CIP2A [32-35] PHAPI/pp32/ [39, 40] [I.sup.PP1A.sub.2] SET/ [39, 43, 44] [I.sup.PP2A.sub.2] SETBP1 [45] Table 4: PP2A-activating drugs/protein.
PKG also activates protein phosphatases, dephosphorylating molecular motor-associated proteins such as the 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC) (Lincoln, 2007).
Endogenous phosphatases and dephosphorylating DNA under an acidic condition have been also identified in lenses [27, 28].
Similarly, reduced expression of signalling pathway components such as phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) involved in negative regulation of PI3K signalling, by dephosphorylating PIP3 in this signal transduction pathway, may prevent the anti-tumour effects of the antibody.